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Tension arises in Assam-Meghalaya border areas despite government resolution to settle boundary disputes

Reported by

East Street Journal Asia

Legal Review by

Priyansha Chouhan, Anmol Gupta

Edited by

Radhika Chatterjee, Anupa Sagar Kujur

Updated by

Sarup Sinha

Published on

August 1, 2023

November 30, 2023

Edited on

November 30, 2023

August 1, 2023

State

Assam

Sector

Land Use

People Affected by Conflict

Households Affected by Conflict

Land Area Affected (in Hectares)

ha

Starting Year

2010

Location of Conflict

Am-ih, Hamren

Khanduli; Tadolangso; Rongpangbong; Mothade (B)

West Karbi Anglong

Reason or Cause of Conflict

Border Dispute

Conflict due to violent incursion, land grabs, illegal Timber trade and unauthorized occupation

Land Conflict Summary

In May 2023, disorder was reported in the Tadolangso region of West Karbi Anglong district of Assam. The border villages of the area have witnessed a tense situation after miscreants, allegedly from Meghalaya, entered Assam’s territory and burnt down two houses. A hut was also burnt in Am-ih village.

Samsing Timung, a villager of Am-ih, told the media, “Yesterday, miscreants from Meghalaya came to Am-ih to create a situation. In trying to stop them there was an altercation between the villagers of Am-ih, Tadolangso, and Rongpangbong and approaching miscreants at Tadolangso. As a result, people from Meghalaya attacked our two persons Simon Ronghi S/o Robiwel Ronghi and Elbert Timung S/o Lawrence Timung of Langhemphi.” 

Meghalaya and Assam share a boundary that stretches beyond 2,000 sq km. In Assam, a part of this inter-state boundary is comprised by the West Karbi Anglong district. A few of the villages that are located on the border in the district include Khanduli, Langhempi, Saitsema, Arting, Mokiram Ningkreng, Tadolangso, and Tapat.

According to one account the border dispute stems from the Meghalaya government’s refusal to accept the Assam Reorganisation (Meghalaya) Act, 1969 after it was carved out of Assam in 1972. There are a total of 12 points of dispute along the Meghalaya–Assam border stretching across an area of 2,765.14 sq. km.

Chief Ministers of Assam and Meghalaya had agreed to resolve the border dispute peacefully through a demarcation of boundaries in March 2022. This involved a give and take policy of land exchange between the two states.

More than 10,000 Khasi people living in Assam’s West Karbi Anglong district (under Block II) have opted to stay within Assam’s territory. But there are communities that are opposed to this policy.

In September 2022, a joint meeting of 42 Karbi groups resolved that the transfer of certain areas of West Karbi Anglong to Meghalaya is not required because all matters concerning the boundary between the United Khasi-Jaintia Hills district and the Mikir Hills Autonomous district (now Karbi Anglong) had been resolved through mutual consent. This was arrived at on the basis of the report of the Commission constituted by notification No TAD/R/31/50 on October 3, 1950, when the boundaries of the latter (Mikir Hills) were notified by notification No TAD/R/31/50/151 on April 13, 1951.

In November 2022, six people, including an Assam Forest** **Guard, were killed and several others injured during an alleged clash between the Assam Police and a mob, in an area bordering the West Karbi Anglong district of Assam and Mukroh village in Meghalaya’s West Jaintia Hills.

On September 26, 2023, a violent clash erupted at Lapangap village, situated on the Assam-Meghalaya border as people from both sides used bows and arrows to attack each other. Fortunately, no injuries were reported during the confrontation.

The dispute stems from a contested piece of land in Lapangap, claimed by residents from both states. According to the West Jaintia Hills Deputy Commissioner, the land belongs to the inhabitants of Lapangap village, who have historically cultivated it. Tensions escalated when locals initiated the harvest of their produce, sparking the altercation.

This recent clash follows a series of violent episodes over the inter-state border, which resulted in the tragic loss of six lives in November last year.

Fact Sheet

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Complaint against procedural violations

Demand to retain/protect access to common land/resources

Demand for compensation

Demand for rehabilitation

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

1. To ensure safety and security of lives & properties in West Karbi Anglong bordering Meghalaya 2. To stop the incursion and land grab by neighboring state 3. Demand to repeal the give and take policy of reconstituting territories by Assam Government 4. Demand for better construction of roads along the periphery areas of West Karbi Anglong 5. To stop these give and take policies of state governments by exchanging/ dividing territories

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Common and Private

Type of Common Land

Forest and Non-Forest

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Details of sources (names of accused, names and numbers of any lawyers, names of any police officers contacted)

Status of Project

Original Project Deadline

Whether the Project has been Delayed

Significance of Land to Land Owners/Users

Agricultural land, Residential area, Other Natural Resource extraction/dependence

Whether the project was stalled due to land conflict

Source/Reference

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Legal Data

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Legislations/Policies Involved

Assam Land and Revenue Regulation, 1886
Section 23 [In case of boundary disputes, the state Survey Officer shall notify the Settlement Officer for deciding disputes]
Assam Reorganisation (Meghalaya) Act, 1969
Section 3 [This section provides for the establishment of the autonomous state of Meghalaya] Section 33 [The State Legislature of Meghalaya has exclusive power to make laws regarding matters included in the Second Schedule] Second Schedule [The Legislative Assembly of Meghalaya has the power to make laws regarding land matters, including survey for revenue purposes and record of rights]
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Land record discrepancies

Lack of legal protection over land rights

Legal Status:

In Court

Status of Case In Court

Pending

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

No

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

High Court of Meghalaya and Supreme Court of India

Case Number

Special Leave Petition (c) Diary No.944/2023 (Supreme Court), Writ Appeal 44/2022 (Meghalaya High Court)

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

On December 8, 2022, a Single Judge bench of the Meghalaya High Court passed an interim order where it directed that demarcation of boundary shall not be carried out due to the memorandum of understanding signed by the chief ministers of both states. This interim order was challenged before the division bench of the High Court in a Writ Appeal. On December 15, 2022, the matter was referred to another Division Bench, which would include the single judge that passed the contested order. The December order was challenged before the Supreme Court. On January 6, 2023, the Supreme Court held that the interim order passed by the Single Judge should be stayed. The matter is still ongoing.

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Attempted killing

Physical attack

Torching of houses

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

On November 22, 2022, Six people, including an Assam Forest Guard, were killed and several others injured during a clash between the Assam Police and a mob. On May 10, 2023, miscreants from Meghalaya allegedly attacked locals of the Am-ih village and burnt a hut on agricultural land. Miscreants came to Am-ih to create a situation. In trying to stop them there was an altercation between the villagers of Am-ih, Tadolangso and Rongpangbong and approaching miscreants at Tadolangso. As a result, people from Meghalaya attacked two persons viz., Simon Ronghi S/o Robiwel Ronghi and Elbert Timung S/o Lawrence Timung of Langhemphi. People from Meghalaya have also destroyed the tea plantation at Tadolangso. Miscreants also attacked two persons with sharp weapons leading to head injuries of one Albert Engti. Albert has been undergoing treatment at Ham Hospital in Hojai. On May 11, 2023, a newly constructed house of one Bernadus Bey at Chirilangso Tapat along the inter-state border was burnt down. On May 13, 2023, miscreants set ablaze a house at Mukoiram (West Karbi Anglong district). On May 14, 2023, miscreants from Meghalaya reportedly burnt down the house of a widow named Basapi Englengpi at Ningkreng village, which is 3 km from Arting.

Date of Violation

May 9, 2023

Location of Violation

Am-ih, Tadolangso

Additional Information

Nature of Protest

Protests/marches

Community-based participatory research

Complaints/petitions/letters/memorandums to officials

Campaigns (grassroots organisations/press releases/media)

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC), Office of Deputy commissioner West Karbi Anglong district

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Information on the use of criminal law

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Resources

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Images

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Video

In May 2023, disorder was reported in the Tadolangso region of West Karbi Anglong district of Assam. The border villages of the area have witnessed a tense situation after miscreants, allegedly from Meghalaya, entered Assam’s territory and burnt down two houses. A hut was also burnt in Am-ih village.

Samsing Timung, a villager of Am-ih, told the media, “Yesterday, miscreants from Meghalaya came to Am-ih to create a situation. In trying to stop them there was an altercation between the villagers of Am-ih, Tadolangso, and Rongpangbong and approaching miscreants at Tadolangso. As a result, people from Meghalaya attacked our two persons Simon Ronghi S/o Robiwel Ronghi and Elbert Timung S/o Lawrence Timung of Langhemphi.” 

Meghalaya and Assam share a boundary that stretches beyond 2,000 sq km. In Assam, a part of this inter-state boundary is comprised by the West Karbi Anglong district. A few of the villages that are located on the border in the district include Khanduli, Langhempi, Saitsema, Arting, Mokiram Ningkreng, Tadolangso, and Tapat.

According to one account the border dispute stems from the Meghalaya government’s refusal to accept the Assam Reorganisation (Meghalaya) Act, 1969 after it was carved out of Assam in 1972. There are a total of 12 points of dispute along the Meghalaya–Assam border stretching across an area of 2,765.14 sq. km.

Chief Ministers of Assam and Meghalaya had agreed to resolve the border dispute peacefully through a demarcation of boundaries in March 2022. This involved a give and take policy of land exchange between the two states.

More than 10,000 Khasi people living in Assam’s West Karbi Anglong district (under Block II) have opted to stay within Assam’s territory. But there are communities that are opposed to this policy.

In September 2022, a joint meeting of 42 Karbi groups resolved that the transfer of certain areas of West Karbi Anglong to Meghalaya is not required because all matters concerning the boundary between the United Khasi-Jaintia Hills district and the Mikir Hills Autonomous district (now Karbi Anglong) had been resolved through mutual consent. This was arrived at on the basis of the report of the Commission constituted by notification No TAD/R/31/50 on October 3, 1950, when the boundaries of the latter (Mikir Hills) were notified by notification No TAD/R/31/50/151 on April 13, 1951.

In November 2022, six people, including an Assam Forest** **Guard, were killed and several others injured during an alleged clash between the Assam Police and a mob, in an area bordering the West Karbi Anglong district of Assam and Mukroh village in Meghalaya’s West Jaintia Hills.

On September 26, 2023, a violent clash erupted at Lapangap village, situated on the Assam-Meghalaya border as people from both sides used bows and arrows to attack each other. Fortunately, no injuries were reported during the confrontation.

The dispute stems from a contested piece of land in Lapangap, claimed by residents from both states. According to the West Jaintia Hills Deputy Commissioner, the land belongs to the inhabitants of Lapangap village, who have historically cultivated it. Tensions escalated when locals initiated the harvest of their produce, sparking the altercation.

This recent clash follows a series of violent episodes over the inter-state border, which resulted in the tragic loss of six lives in November last year.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Complaint against procedural violations

Demand to retain/protect access to common land/resources

Demand for compensation

Demand for rehabilitation

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

1. To ensure safety and security of lives & properties in West Karbi Anglong bordering Meghalaya 2. To stop the incursion and land grab by neighboring state 3. Demand to repeal the give and take policy of reconstituting territories by Assam Government 4. Demand for better construction of roads along the periphery areas of West Karbi Anglong 5. To stop these give and take policies of state governments by exchanging/ dividing territories

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Common and Private

Type of Common Land

Forest and Non-Forest

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Legislations/Policies Involved

Assam Land and Revenue Regulation, 1886
Section 23 [In case of boundary disputes, the state Survey Officer shall notify the Settlement Officer for deciding disputes]
Assam Reorganisation (Meghalaya) Act, 1969
Section 3 [This section provides for the establishment of the autonomous state of Meghalaya] Section 33 [The State Legislature of Meghalaya has exclusive power to make laws regarding matters included in the Second Schedule] Second Schedule [The Legislative Assembly of Meghalaya has the power to make laws regarding land matters, including survey for revenue purposes and record of rights]
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Land record discrepancies

Lack of legal protection over land rights

Legal Status:

In Court

Status of Case In Court

Pending

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

No

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

High Court of Meghalaya and Supreme Court of India

Case Number

Special Leave Petition (c) Diary No.944/2023 (Supreme Court), Writ Appeal 44/2022 (Meghalaya High Court)

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

On December 8, 2022, a Single Judge bench of the Meghalaya High Court passed an interim order where it directed that demarcation of boundary shall not be carried out due to the memorandum of understanding signed by the chief ministers of both states. This interim order was challenged before the division bench of the High Court in a Writ Appeal. On December 15, 2022, the matter was referred to another Division Bench, which would include the single judge that passed the contested order. The December order was challenged before the Supreme Court. On January 6, 2023, the Supreme Court held that the interim order passed by the Single Judge should be stayed. The matter is still ongoing.

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Attempted killing

Physical attack

Torching of houses

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

On November 22, 2022, Six people, including an Assam Forest Guard, were killed and several others injured during a clash between the Assam Police and a mob. On May 10, 2023, miscreants from Meghalaya allegedly attacked locals of the Am-ih village and burnt a hut on agricultural land. Miscreants came to Am-ih to create a situation. In trying to stop them there was an altercation between the villagers of Am-ih, Tadolangso and Rongpangbong and approaching miscreants at Tadolangso. As a result, people from Meghalaya attacked two persons viz., Simon Ronghi S/o Robiwel Ronghi and Elbert Timung S/o Lawrence Timung of Langhemphi. People from Meghalaya have also destroyed the tea plantation at Tadolangso. Miscreants also attacked two persons with sharp weapons leading to head injuries of one Albert Engti. Albert has been undergoing treatment at Ham Hospital in Hojai. On May 11, 2023, a newly constructed house of one Bernadus Bey at Chirilangso Tapat along the inter-state border was burnt down. On May 13, 2023, miscreants set ablaze a house at Mukoiram (West Karbi Anglong district). On May 14, 2023, miscreants from Meghalaya reportedly burnt down the house of a widow named Basapi Englengpi at Ningkreng village, which is 3 km from Arting.

Date of Violation

May 9, 2023

Location of Violation

Am-ih, Tadolangso

Nature of Protest

Protests/marches

Community-based participatory research

Complaints/petitions/letters/memorandums to officials

Campaigns (grassroots organisations/press releases/media)

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC), Office of Deputy commissioner West Karbi Anglong district

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

We called the Deputy Commissioner's office, West Karbi Anglong but, couldn't connect as the officer was transferred from the position.

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

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Other Land Conflicts in Assam

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