Surat ranked fourth in the country in the annual survey of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs that ranks cities on the basis of cleanliness and sanitation, published in May 2017. In 2013, the Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC) issued a notice that allowed Nagarpalikas of south Gujarat to dump their waste and garbage at a location in Khajod village. The SMC had been dumping its solid waste at Khajod without segregation for the past 18 years. People of 35 villages located near the site had demanded the closure of the facility due to concerns over pollution. MSH Sheikh, an environmental expert, who has been campaigning against the dumping site's location, went to the National Green Tribunal (NGT) along with Parivartan Trust, a nonprofit in the state. The residents of nearby villages expressed concern that the foul smell from the garbage dump would create health problems. The pollution caused by repeated fires at the site resulted in heavy air pollution within a 10kilometre radius, causing health issues in Khajod, Budiya, Gabeni, Dipli, Jiyav and Bhimrad villages. Kalim Siddique from Insaf Foundation stated, "The death rate among the residents of the area is much higher. Women complain of premature abortion. Water pollution has led to higher incidence of kidney failure, acute asthma cases and heart failure. In May 2017, the NGT directed the SMC authorities to close the Khajod open dumping site within 18 months and commence closure work within a month. In June 2017, the SMC identified three plots of land at Bhandup and Mandroi in Olpad tehsil and in Wankinada near PalsanaKadodara in Surat district to shift its solid waste disposal site from Khajod. In February 2020, the SMC cleared out the 25 lakh tonne solid waste accumulated at the dumping site in Khajod and shut it down permanently. Presently, 30 acres of the site have been converted into lush green lawns, and Surat Diamond Bourse, a nonprofit, is coming up on another 35 acres.
Opposition against environmental degradation
Non-Forest (Other than Grazing Land)
Has the Conflict Ended?
When did it end?
Why did the conflict end?
Community’s original demands were met
Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict
Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute
What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community? What was the decision of the concerned government department?
Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:
Violation of environmental laws
Status of Case In Court
Whether any adjudicatory body was approached
Name of the adjudicatory body
Name(s) of the Court(s)
OA No. 81 of 2014, MA No. 98 of 2018
Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:
Whether criminal law was used against protestors
Official name of the criminal law. Did the case reach trial?
Reported Details of the Violation:
Date of Violation
Location of Violation
Nature of Protest
Complaints, petitions, memorandums to officials
Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:
Surat Municipal Corporation, State Pollution Control Board
PSUs Involved in the Conflict:
Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?
Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached
Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:
Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?
Name, Designation and Comment of Corporate Authorities Approached
Other Parties Involved in the Conflict:
Parivartan Trust, Insaf Foundation