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Centre, Assam Gives in to Bodos' Demand for Bodoland, Signs Peace Accord

Reported by

Ashmita Bhattacharya

Legal Review by

Edited by

Updated by

Published on

September 13, 2016

March 11, 2023

Edited on

September 13, 2016

State

Assam

Sector

Land Use

People Affected by Conflict

76000

Households Affected by Conflict

Land Area Affected (in Hectares)

ha

Starting Year

1967

Location of Conflict

Kokrajhar

Baksa, Udalguri, Chirang

Kokrajhar

Reason or Cause of Conflict

Communal/Ethnic Conflict

Land Conflict Summary

Bodos are the single-largest ethnic tribe in Assam, making up over five to six per cent of the state’s population. They started an armed struggle for a separate state called Bodoland in the mid-1960s. They formed the Plains Tribal Council of Assam and launched in 1967 a popular movement demanding the new state. However, the PTCA gave up the agitation for a separate homeland after it joined the Janata government in 1978-79. In 1987, the All Bodo Students' Union (ABSU) renewed the demand, raising the slogan, “Divide Assam Fifty-Fifty”.
Following an agreement in 1993, Bodoland became an autonomous administrative unit constituted under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India administered by the Bodoland Autonomous Council. While the region faces multiple problems of ethnicity, religion and race, land ownership remains the primary cause of contention. Bodos are one of the most marginalised communities in the state. They often claim to feel alienated and discriminated against and have time and again demanded separation from Assam.
In the course of their decades-old movement, land ownership became an important agenda. From the early 90s onwards, Bodo extremist groups started targeting non-Bodos, including Muslims, Adivasis, Koch Rajbongshis and others (Assamese Hindus, Bengali Hindus, Nepalis and Biharis) and drove many of them out.
Following violent clashes in 2012 between the Bodos and non-Bodos, more than 400,000 people were displaced and over 100 were killed. A large number of displaced people have not been able to return to their homes. The lands left behind by them are now being used by influential Bodos. There have been reports of politicians growing rubber plantations on lands that had once belonged to the primitive Bodo tribes.
On May 2, 2018, ABSU organised a five-day National Highway blockade in all Bodoland areas in the state, urging the Centre to resolve the issue.
On January 27, 2020, a new peace agreement was signed between the Centre and the Assam government on one side and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland, ABSU and United Bodo People's Organisation on the other. Under the terms of this agreement, the boundary of the Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District would be redrawn, and the area would be renamed Bodoland Territorial Region. This would be done by forming new districts. Further, the boundary of the region will be adjusted to include contiguous Bodo-inhabited areas from neighbouring districts and exclude non-Bodo-inhabited territories currently under the jurisdiction of the Bodoland Territorial Council.
The process was initiated in September. “The government will set up a four-member commission headed by former Chief Secretary P.P. Verma. It would have a tenure of six months from the day of its formation,” Himanta Biswa Sarma, Assam's health, finance, PWD and education minister, was quoted in a news report.

Fact Sheet

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

No items found.

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for seperate statehood

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Common and Private

Type of Common Land

Forest and Non-Forest

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Details of sources (names of accused, names and numbers of any lawyers, names of any police officers contacted)

Status of Project

Original Project Deadline

Whether the Project has been Delayed

Significance of Land to Land Owners/Users

Whether the project was stalled due to land conflict

Source/Reference

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

Yes

When did it end?

January, 2020

Why did the conflict end?

Conflict ended due to any other reason

A historic peace accord was signed on January 27, 2020, between the Centre and the Assam government on one side and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland, All Bodo Students' Union and United Bodo People's Organisation on the other. Under the terms of this agreement, the boundary of the Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District would be redrawn, and the area would be renamed Bodoland Territorial Region. This would be done by forming new districts. Further, the boundary of the region will be adjusted to include contiguous Bodo-inhabited areas from neighbouring districts and exclude non-Bodo-inhabited territories currently under the jurisdiction of the Bodoland Territorial Council.

Legal Data

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Constitutional Law, Other

Legislations/Policies Involved

Constitution of India, 1950
Sixth Schedule, Provision 1: Autonomous Regions
General principles on the rights of internally displaced persons 
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Violation of standard international laws

Lack of legal protection over land rights

Legal Status:

Out of Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Killing

Displacement

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

Following violent clashes in 2012 between the Bodos and non-Bodos, more than 400,000 people were displaced and over 100 were killed.

Date of Violation

Location of Violation

Additional Information

Nature of Protest

Armed protests

Campaigns (grassroots organisations/press releases/media)

Protests/marches

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Assam government, Bodoland Territorial Council

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

No

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Bodos, Adivasis, Koch Rajbongshis

Information on the use of criminal law

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Resources

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Images

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Video

Bodos are the single-largest ethnic tribe in Assam, making up over five to six per cent of the state’s population. They started an armed struggle for a separate state called Bodoland in the mid-1960s. They formed the Plains Tribal Council of Assam and launched in 1967 a popular movement demanding the new state. However, the PTCA gave up the agitation for a separate homeland after it joined the Janata government in 1978-79. In 1987, the All Bodo Students' Union (ABSU) renewed the demand, raising the slogan, “Divide Assam Fifty-Fifty”.
Following an agreement in 1993, Bodoland became an autonomous administrative unit constituted under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India administered by the Bodoland Autonomous Council. While the region faces multiple problems of ethnicity, religion and race, land ownership remains the primary cause of contention. Bodos are one of the most marginalised communities in the state. They often claim to feel alienated and discriminated against and have time and again demanded separation from Assam.
In the course of their decades-old movement, land ownership became an important agenda. From the early 90s onwards, Bodo extremist groups started targeting non-Bodos, including Muslims, Adivasis, Koch Rajbongshis and others (Assamese Hindus, Bengali Hindus, Nepalis and Biharis) and drove many of them out.
Following violent clashes in 2012 between the Bodos and non-Bodos, more than 400,000 people were displaced and over 100 were killed. A large number of displaced people have not been able to return to their homes. The lands left behind by them are now being used by influential Bodos. There have been reports of politicians growing rubber plantations on lands that had once belonged to the primitive Bodo tribes.
On May 2, 2018, ABSU organised a five-day National Highway blockade in all Bodoland areas in the state, urging the Centre to resolve the issue.
On January 27, 2020, a new peace agreement was signed between the Centre and the Assam government on one side and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland, ABSU and United Bodo People's Organisation on the other. Under the terms of this agreement, the boundary of the Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District would be redrawn, and the area would be renamed Bodoland Territorial Region. This would be done by forming new districts. Further, the boundary of the region will be adjusted to include contiguous Bodo-inhabited areas from neighbouring districts and exclude non-Bodo-inhabited territories currently under the jurisdiction of the Bodoland Territorial Council.
The process was initiated in September. “The government will set up a four-member commission headed by former Chief Secretary P.P. Verma. It would have a tenure of six months from the day of its formation,” Himanta Biswa Sarma, Assam's health, finance, PWD and education minister, was quoted in a news report.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

No items found.

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for seperate statehood

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Common and Private

Type of Common Land

Forest and Non-Forest

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

Yes

When did it end?

January, 2020

Why did the conflict end?

Conflict ended due to any other reason

A historic peace accord was signed on January 27, 2020, between the Centre and the Assam government on one side and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland, All Bodo Students' Union and United Bodo People's Organisation on the other. Under the terms of this agreement, the boundary of the Bodoland Territorial Autonomous District would be redrawn, and the area would be renamed Bodoland Territorial Region. This would be done by forming new districts. Further, the boundary of the region will be adjusted to include contiguous Bodo-inhabited areas from neighbouring districts and exclude non-Bodo-inhabited territories currently under the jurisdiction of the Bodoland Territorial Council.

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Constitutional Law, Other

Legislations/Policies Involved

Constitution of India, 1950
Sixth Schedule, Provision 1: Autonomous Regions
General principles on the rights of internally displaced persons 
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Violation of standard international laws

Lack of legal protection over land rights

Legal Status:

Out of Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Killing

Displacement

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

Following violent clashes in 2012 between the Bodos and non-Bodos, more than 400,000 people were displaced and over 100 were killed.

Date of Violation

Location of Violation

Nature of Protest

Armed protests

Campaigns (grassroots organisations/press releases/media)

Protests/marches

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Assam government, Bodoland Territorial Council

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Bodos, Adivasis, Koch Rajbongshis

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Documented By

Text Link

Reviewed By

Text Link

Updated By

Text Link

Edited By

Text LinkLand Conflict Watch

Other Land Conflicts in Assam

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