Vizhinjam Seaport Sparks Fear among Locals, Environmentalists over Coastal Erosion

Reported by

Dr. K.H. Amitha Bachan

Legal Data by

Edited by

Updated by

Published on

September 7, 2016

September 7, 2016

Updated on

September 7, 2016

Location of Conflict

Valiyathura

Kallumoodu and Muttathara

Thiruvananthapuram

Reason or Cause of Conflict

Port

(

)

People Affected by Conflict

18000

Households Affected by Conflict

Land Area Affected (in Hectares)

146

ha

Starting Year

2015

State

Kerala

Sector

Infrastructure

Vizhinjam International Seaport is an underconstruction port in Thiruvananthapuram conceived 25 years ago. The construction of the port began in 2015 when the Kerala cabinet awarded the port and deepwater container transshipment terminal to Adani Ports and SEZ, the sole bidder. Vizhinjam International Seaport Limited (VISL) is a special purpose government company (fully owned by Government of Kerala) that act as an implementation agency for the state government for the development of the port. The deep water sea port is on 360 acres of land (of which 130 acres have been reclaimed from sea) will have the capacity to handle 80 per cent of Indias cargo. The project has faced opposition from environmental activists, local fishermen and the tourism industry. They allege that the port would cause largescale coastal erosion. In 2016, two environmental activists in Thiruvananthapuram filed a plea at the National Green Tribunal (NGT) against the port. But the NGT refused to cancel the environment clearance, although it later allowed a review plea to be filed. Lawyer Prashant Bhushan representing fisherman's near Vizhinjam also filed a petition demanding stay on port work until the environmental impacts of the project were reassessed. However, the Supreme Court ruled instead that work would continue and that Adani Group and the Government of Kerala would be held responsible for restoring the environment to its original position if the court thought it fit to interfere with construction activity. Local fisherfolk allege that their access to the sea has been blocked since the commencement of the project. Going by the experience of fishing communities near other ports, they fear that they will be pushed further away from the sea and will lose access to more of their fishing grounds if the port is completed. The fisherfolk community also allege of delayed compensation and nonrehabilitation of families who gave their land for the project. In October 2017, local people protested against the delayed compensation. On October 30, 2018, fisherfolk from Vizhinjam joined their counterparts in a countrywide protest to oppose the shipping corridor. There are 18,000 cases seeking rehabilitation and compensation were being filed by August 2019, however, the government didn't make any payouts citing the election as reason for delays. The impact has become evident of late. In a report in October 2020, T. Peter, general secretary of the National Fishworkers Forum claimed that the coastal erosion has already left 172 families homeless. Environmental activist Thomas Lawrence also expressed concern stating that in 2019 itself, around 603 people belonging to 143 families from the villages were shifted to relief camps due to incursion of the sea. However, both the Adani Vizhinjam Port Pvt Ltd and the Kerala government firmly deny of any coastal erosion and ecological destruction. The compliance report of the seaport project for October 2019March 2020, issued by Adani Vizhinjam Port Pvt Ltd in consultation with the Kerala government, states that there is no shoreline degradation in the area as projected by those who oppose the project.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for promised compensation

Demand for rehabilitation

Complaint against procedural violations

Opposition against environmental degradation

Demand to retain/protect access to common land/resources

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Both

Type of Common Land

Non-Forest (Other than Grazing Land)

Total investment involved (in Crores):

6595

Type of investment:

Cost of Project

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Land Acquisition Laws, Environmental Laws, Central/State Government Policy

Legislations/Policies Involved

Environmental Impact Assessment Notification, 2006
Schedule 1, Item 7e: Clearance for activities relating to ports and harbors
Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
Section 31(i): The Collector shall pass Rehabilitation and Resettlement Awards for each affected family, and it needs to take into account fishing rights of individuals
Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2011
Section 8, Item I: CRZ-I area and restrictions within it, no new construction can take place except those listed
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Non-rehabilitation of displaced people

Legal Status:

In Court

Status of Case In Court

Disposed

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

National Green Tribunal Principal Bench, New Delhi

Case Number

Original Application No. 74 of 2014

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

No items found.

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

Date of Violation

Location of Violation

Nature of Protest

Advocacy (for inclusion in courts)

Protests/marches

Campaigns (grassroots organisations/press releases/media)

Public campaign

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Vizhinjam International Seaport Ltd

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Adani Vizhinjam Port Private Limited, Vizhinjam International Seaport Ltd

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Adani Ports and Special Economic Zone Limited

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Left Democratic Front

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Documented By

Text Link

Reviewed By

Text Link

Updated By

Text Link

Edited By

Text LinkLand Conflict Watch
X

Support our work

Your contribution ensures continuity of this crucial project.

As a member, you will get exclusive access to special reports, policy papers and research projects undertaken by Land Conflict Watch and behind-the-scenes interactions with the writers and researchers about their work.
Join Now