Land Dispute in UP's Sonbhadra Between Gujjars, Gonds Claims 10 Lives

Reported by

Saurabh SharmaLand Conflict Watch

Last updated on

August 5, 2021

Location of Conflict



Reason or Cause of Conflict

Communal/Ethnic Conflict



People Affected by Conflict


Land Area Affected (in Hectares)



Starting Year



Uttar Pradesh


Land Use

On July 17, 2019, over 300 armed men reached Umbha village, about 70 kilometres from the district headquarters of Sonbhadra in Uttar Pradesh, to take possession of 36 acres of land that was bought by the Pradhan (village panchayat head) Mr Yagya Dutt in 2017. Mr Dutt, who belongs to the Gujjar community, purchased the plot from from Adarsh Cooperative Society Limited. Mr Dutt accompanied the men to take possession of the land. When the Gond Adivasi people living in the area protested, the armed men opened fire, killing 10 tribals and injuring 28. The massacre was reportedly planned as over two dozen armed people were specially brought in from Jharkhand and Bihar to take possession of the land. The investigation carried out by the state government also found the police complicit in the crime as they did not take timely action despite knowing about Dutt's plan to attack the tribals. The village residents told Land Conflict Watch that Dutt had been trying to take control over the land for the last two years. According to the survivors, they have been living and cultivating on the land since before 1947 but they do not have ownership titles. Dutt had settled in the village after migrating from western Uttar Pradesh some four decades ago. In the past two years, he has made various attempts, including threats, to take possession the land. All 10 people who were killed, except for one, were young and breadwinners of their families. Their kin will now have to struggle every day, Ramraj Gond, who is representing the community in the court case against the accused, told Land Conflict Watch. Local leader Hariram Chero from Dundi Assembly had written to Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath on January 14, 2019, stating that the land mafia in the area under the jurisdiction of the Ghorawal police station was planning to forcibly seize the land of the tribal people there. The name of Prabhat Mishra, Bihar cadre's former IAS officer and former district magistrate of Mirzapur, has also come up in the case as the land was previously owned and purchased by him at a cheap price. According to Chote Lal Karwar, a Member of Parliament from the Bharatiya Janata Party, on December 17, 1955, then tehsildar Robert Sangaz sold 648 acres of land to Adarsh Cooperative Society. Even after the society's term expired in 1966, the land continued to be registered under its name. In 1989, Mishra, who was then the district magistrate of the region, got the land registered under the names of his family members. Meanwhile, the state government has formed a special team to investigate the matter after a 1,000page report was submitted to it by a committee of officers formed by the chief secretary of the state. The government has also offered four acres of land to the families of the deceased, who have accepted the compensation. They made an additional demand for a school to be constructed in the village, which the state agreed.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for legal recognition of land rights

Region Classification


Type of Land


Type of Common Land

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Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Has the Conflict Ended?


When did it end?

July, 2019

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict


Legislations/Policies Involved

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community? What was the decision of the concerned government department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Legal Status:

In Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

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Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

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Whether criminal law was used against protestors

Official name of the criminal law. Did the case reach trial?

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Date of Violation

Location of Violation

Nature of Protest

Complaints, petitions, memorandums to officials

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Forest department

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Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

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Documented By

Saurabh Sharma

Reviewed By

Saurabh Sharma

Updated By

Saurabh Sharma

Edited By

Saurabh SharmaLand Conflict Watch

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