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Land Dispute Between Kukis, Nagas in Manipur Leave 150 Families Homeless

Reported by

Anurag Das

Legal Data by

Edited by

Updated by

Published on

September 30, 2020

May 17, 2022

Edited on

September 30, 2020

State

Manipur

Sector

Land Use

People Affected by Conflict

720

Households Affected by Conflict

Land Area Affected (in Hectares)

ha

Starting Year

1919

Location of Conflict

Chassad

Sampui village

Kamjong

Reason or Cause of Conflict

Communal/Ethnic Conflict

Land Conflict Summary

On March 16, 2020, an arson attack took place in Chassad village in Kamjong district. The attack involved acts of ransacking and looting, allegedly committed by an armed mob from the neighbouring Sampui village. The village's jhum fields, more than 150 houses and 10 vehicles were torched. The state government had to intervene by invoking Section 144 of the Criminal Procedure Code and temporarily suspending Internet services. Land ownership is at the heart of the ethnic clash between the warring communities the Kuki tribe residing in Chassad village and the Tangkhul Naga community of Sampui village. The violent incident was a reminder of the 199394 communal clashes between the two communities over the same issue of ownership of land resources, which led to the massacre of hundreds of people from both the communities. Chassad and Sampui villages are part of Kamjong district, which was carved out of Ukhrul district and was officially recognised on December 8, 2016, but ethnic clashes between the Kukis and Nagas can be traced to colonial times. Kamjong district is mainly dominated by Tangkhul Nagas, who consider it their ancestral territory. The Kukis, meanwhile, claim it to be their ancestral land with historical significance. The Tangkhul Nagas, supported by the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (IsakMuivah), refute this claim. The main land area in contention is the open forest area between these two villages. In a case filed in 1945 by the Sampui village headman regarding the dispute, the Sub Divisional Officer ruled in Chassad village's favour but the area continues to be disputed till date. On March 15, 2020, approximately 30 acres of land under jhum cultivation, owned by the Kukis, were burnt down by some unidentified persons. The Kuki tribe from Chassad village blamed it on the Tangkhul Nagas of neighbouring Sampui village, stating that they wanted to destroy the official documents that recognizes Chassad's ownership of the land, and blocked the UkhrulKamjong state highway. In retaliation, the aggrieved Naga community attacked Chassad village the next day, burning down houses and vehicles. The NSCN (IM) denied attacking Chassad and pointed fingers at Kamjong residents but blamed the Kukis for 'provoking' the Nagas. In the aftermath of the attack, more than a hundred families were left homeless. According to Chongoi Baite, a resident of Chassad, of** **the 150 houses that were torched, only 30 were not completely gutted down. "Every single thing in the remaining houses, right down to the last spoon, was either destroyed or looted," she told LCW. Even though the state promised assistance to the affected people, nothing concrete has been seen on the ground so far. A villager in Chassad added, "Though the Assam Rifles personnel forestalled the perpetrators, neither they nor the Manipur State Police stopped the looting, ransacking, burning or the trucks that ferried away household goods, such as bags of rice, clothes, money, utensils, televisions, etc. Pressure groups like the Kuki Nampi Taona and Kuki Inpi provided temporary rehabilitation and relief material to the homeless. The reconstruction of houses had begun soon after and the residents of Chassad were promised monetary assistance. However, on March 30, the Sampui village authority wrote a letter to the chief minister's office demanding that the resettlement of Chassad village must not happen without Sampui's consent, in addition to demanding legal ownership of Chassad. On that account, although the families seek rehabilitation, they also fear a second attack by the Naga community surrounding them.

Fact Sheet

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for rehabilitation

Demand for legal recognition of land rights

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Common

Type of Common Land

Forest

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Details of sources (names of accused, names and numbers of any lawyers, names of any police officers contacted)

Status of Project

Original Project Deadline

Whether the Project has been Delayed

Significance of Land to Land Owners/Users

Whether the project was stalled due to land conflict

Source/Reference

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Legal Data

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Constitutional Law, Procedural Laws, Forest and Scheduled Area Governance Laws

Legislations/Policies Involved

Manipur (Hill Areas) District Councils Act, 1971
Section 29 [This section provides the functions of the District Council, which includes (xv) management of non-reserve forest area, (xvi) regulation of Jhum or other shifting agriculture, or (xvii) any other matters concerned with agriculture, social and tribal welfare, village planning etc]
Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
Section 144 [This section empowers the district magistrate to issue orders to prevent obstruction, injury, or danger to human life or health etc. and the orders were issued here for preventing public gatherings and suspending internet to prevent further violence]
Indian Penal Code, 1860
Section 390 [This section defines the offence of robbery]; Section 392 [This section prescribes the punishment for robbery] Section 435 [This section prescribes the punishment for committing mischief by fire or explosive substance to damage agricultural produce or other property]; Section 441 [This section defines criminal trespass on the property of another]; Section 447 [Criminal trespass is punishable under this section]
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Lack of legal protection over land rights

Forced evictions/dispossession of land

Non-rehabilitation of displaced people

Legal Status:

Out of Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Torching of houses

Raid/break-in/theft

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

At least 150 houses, 10 vehicles and the village's Jhum fields were torched by an armed mob. The mob allegedly ransacked and looted the houses too.

Date of Violation

March 16, 2020

Location of Violation

Chassad

Additional Information

Nature of Protest

Blockades

Property damage/arson

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

District administration of Kamjong, Police department

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Kuki Inpi, Tangkhul Naga Zingsho Longphang, Government of People's Republic of Nagalim, United People's Front, Kuki National Organisation, United Naga Council

Information on the use of criminal law

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Resources

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Images

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Video

On March 16, 2020, an arson attack took place in Chassad village in Kamjong district. The attack involved acts of ransacking and looting, allegedly committed by an armed mob from the neighbouring Sampui village. The village's jhum fields, more than 150 houses and 10 vehicles were torched. The state government had to intervene by invoking Section 144 of the Criminal Procedure Code and temporarily suspending Internet services. Land ownership is at the heart of the ethnic clash between the warring communities the Kuki tribe residing in Chassad village and the Tangkhul Naga community of Sampui village. The violent incident was a reminder of the 199394 communal clashes between the two communities over the same issue of ownership of land resources, which led to the massacre of hundreds of people from both the communities. Chassad and Sampui villages are part of Kamjong district, which was carved out of Ukhrul district and was officially recognised on December 8, 2016, but ethnic clashes between the Kukis and Nagas can be traced to colonial times. Kamjong district is mainly dominated by Tangkhul Nagas, who consider it their ancestral territory. The Kukis, meanwhile, claim it to be their ancestral land with historical significance. The Tangkhul Nagas, supported by the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (IsakMuivah), refute this claim. The main land area in contention is the open forest area between these two villages. In a case filed in 1945 by the Sampui village headman regarding the dispute, the Sub Divisional Officer ruled in Chassad village's favour but the area continues to be disputed till date. On March 15, 2020, approximately 30 acres of land under jhum cultivation, owned by the Kukis, were burnt down by some unidentified persons. The Kuki tribe from Chassad village blamed it on the Tangkhul Nagas of neighbouring Sampui village, stating that they wanted to destroy the official documents that recognizes Chassad's ownership of the land, and blocked the UkhrulKamjong state highway. In retaliation, the aggrieved Naga community attacked Chassad village the next day, burning down houses and vehicles. The NSCN (IM) denied attacking Chassad and pointed fingers at Kamjong residents but blamed the Kukis for 'provoking' the Nagas. In the aftermath of the attack, more than a hundred families were left homeless. According to Chongoi Baite, a resident of Chassad, of** **the 150 houses that were torched, only 30 were not completely gutted down. "Every single thing in the remaining houses, right down to the last spoon, was either destroyed or looted," she told LCW. Even though the state promised assistance to the affected people, nothing concrete has been seen on the ground so far. A villager in Chassad added, "Though the Assam Rifles personnel forestalled the perpetrators, neither they nor the Manipur State Police stopped the looting, ransacking, burning or the trucks that ferried away household goods, such as bags of rice, clothes, money, utensils, televisions, etc. Pressure groups like the Kuki Nampi Taona and Kuki Inpi provided temporary rehabilitation and relief material to the homeless. The reconstruction of houses had begun soon after and the residents of Chassad were promised monetary assistance. However, on March 30, the Sampui village authority wrote a letter to the chief minister's office demanding that the resettlement of Chassad village must not happen without Sampui's consent, in addition to demanding legal ownership of Chassad. On that account, although the families seek rehabilitation, they also fear a second attack by the Naga community surrounding them.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for rehabilitation

Demand for legal recognition of land rights

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Common

Type of Common Land

Forest

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Constitutional Law, Procedural Laws, Forest and Scheduled Area Governance Laws

Legislations/Policies Involved

Manipur (Hill Areas) District Councils Act, 1971
Section 29 [This section provides the functions of the District Council, which includes (xv) management of non-reserve forest area, (xvi) regulation of Jhum or other shifting agriculture, or (xvii) any other matters concerned with agriculture, social and tribal welfare, village planning etc]
Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
Section 144 [This section empowers the district magistrate to issue orders to prevent obstruction, injury, or danger to human life or health etc. and the orders were issued here for preventing public gatherings and suspending internet to prevent further violence]
Indian Penal Code, 1860
Section 390 [This section defines the offence of robbery]; Section 392 [This section prescribes the punishment for robbery] Section 435 [This section prescribes the punishment for committing mischief by fire or explosive substance to damage agricultural produce or other property]; Section 441 [This section defines criminal trespass on the property of another]; Section 447 [Criminal trespass is punishable under this section]
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Lack of legal protection over land rights

Forced evictions/dispossession of land

Non-rehabilitation of displaced people

Legal Status:

Out of Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Torching of houses

Raid/break-in/theft

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

At least 150 houses, 10 vehicles and the village's Jhum fields were torched by an armed mob. The mob allegedly ransacked and looted the houses too.

Date of Violation

March 16, 2020

Location of Violation

Chassad

Nature of Protest

Blockades

Property damage/arson

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

District administration of Kamjong, Police department

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Kuki Inpi, Tangkhul Naga Zingsho Longphang, Government of People's Republic of Nagalim, United People's Front, Kuki National Organisation, United Naga Council

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Documented By

Text Link

Reviewed By

Text Link

Updated By

Text Link

Edited By

Text LinkLand Conflict Watch

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