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Karbi-Pnar communities clash in Khanduli village over a dispute at Assam - Meghalaya border

Reported by

Sarup Sinha

Legal Review by

Priyansha Chouhan, Anmol Gupta

Edited by

Radhika Chatterjee

Updated by

Published on

August 2, 2023

August 3, 2023

Edited on

August 2, 2023

State

Meghalaya

Sector

Land Use

People Affected by Conflict

Households Affected by Conflict

Land Area Affected (in Hectares)

ha

Starting Year

2023

Location of Conflict

Khanduli

West Jaintia Hills

Reason or Cause of Conflict

Other Kind of Land Use

Land Conflict Summary

In the disputed Meghalaya-Assam border, a clash erupted on May 11, 2023, between the Karbi and Khasi-Pnar communities at Khanduli village in West Jaintia Hills district, Meghalaya. The clash reportedly led to stone pelting, fist fights and attacks on the official vehicle of the SP of West Jaintia Hills. Further, a few miscreants allegedly from the Karbi community set fire to two huts in Khanduli.

The controversy began with the setup of an Entry Tax Gate by the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC) in April 2023 at Khanduli village, which falls under the jurisdiction of Meghalaya.

The clash reportedly broke out in response to a decision by the Dorbar Shnong (Village Council) of Khanduli to prevent the Karbi community from passing through the village to deny the Karbis access to the Khanduli market until a settlement is achieved.

In a letter to the Deputy Commissioner of West Jaintia Hills, Hynniewtrep Border Dispute Redressal Forum (HBDRF) mentioned that the district administration of West Karbi Anglong and West Jaintia Hills had a meeting on April 19, 2023, where they resolved to withdraw the gate in consultation with KAAC but the gate continues to be in place.

To address the situation, the JHADC Chief Executive Member, Thombor Shiwat, expressed the council's willingness to establish that Khanduli falls under Meghalaya. He mentioned that the JHADC had affirmed to the headman of Khanduli that the village had a proper demarcation of its boundary.

Supporting the decision of Khanduli Dorbar Shnong, the Khasi Students' Union (KSU), West Jaintia Hills unit, has demanded for a settlement before any border talks proceed with Assam. HBDRF also urged the district administrations to convene a joint meeting between the Karbi people and Khanduli residents to rebuild trust and restore peace in the border areas.

The district administrations of both West Jaintia Hills and West Karbi Anglong have deployed security personnel in the area to control the situation.

Fact Sheet

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for better access to common land/resources

Demand for legal recognition of land rights

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Removal of Entry Tax Gate

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Common

Type of Common Land

Non-Forest (Grazing Land)

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Details of sources (names of accused, names and numbers of any lawyers, names of any police officers contacted)

Status of Project

Original Project Deadline

Whether the Project has been Delayed

Significance of Land to Land Owners/Users

Agricultural land

Whether the project was stalled due to land conflict

Source/Reference

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Legal Data

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Legislations/Policies Involved

North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971
Section 5 [This section specifies the formation and territorial extent of Meghalaya] Section 8 [This section states that territories of Assam shall comprise of the existing areas, except to the extent of the are which now comes under the territory of Meghalaya, Mizroam and Arunachal Pradesh.]
Constitution of India, 1950
Article 244 read with Sixth Schedule [Specifies the formation, administration and power of autonomous districts, regions and councils, which includes authority to make laws for occupation and use of land.]
Assam and Meghalaya Autonomous Districts (Constitution of District Councils) Rules, 1951
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

No

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Land record discrepancies

Legal Status:

Out of Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

No

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Physical attack

Torching of houses

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

No

Reported Details of the Violation:

Date of Violation

May 10, 2023

Location of Violation

Khanduli Village

Additional Information

Nature of Protest

Stone pelting

Property damage/arson

Complaints/petitions/letters/memorandums to officials

Community-based participatory research

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

West Karbi Anglong District Administration, West Jaintia Hills District Administration, Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council, Jaintia Autonomous District Council

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

No

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Khanduli Village Council, Hynniewtrep Border Dispute Redressal Forum, Khasi Students' Union

Information on the use of criminal law

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Resources

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Images

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Video

In the disputed Meghalaya-Assam border, a clash erupted on May 11, 2023, between the Karbi and Khasi-Pnar communities at Khanduli village in West Jaintia Hills district, Meghalaya. The clash reportedly led to stone pelting, fist fights and attacks on the official vehicle of the SP of West Jaintia Hills. Further, a few miscreants allegedly from the Karbi community set fire to two huts in Khanduli.

The controversy began with the setup of an Entry Tax Gate by the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC) in April 2023 at Khanduli village, which falls under the jurisdiction of Meghalaya.

The clash reportedly broke out in response to a decision by the Dorbar Shnong (Village Council) of Khanduli to prevent the Karbi community from passing through the village to deny the Karbis access to the Khanduli market until a settlement is achieved.

In a letter to the Deputy Commissioner of West Jaintia Hills, Hynniewtrep Border Dispute Redressal Forum (HBDRF) mentioned that the district administration of West Karbi Anglong and West Jaintia Hills had a meeting on April 19, 2023, where they resolved to withdraw the gate in consultation with KAAC but the gate continues to be in place.

To address the situation, the JHADC Chief Executive Member, Thombor Shiwat, expressed the council's willingness to establish that Khanduli falls under Meghalaya. He mentioned that the JHADC had affirmed to the headman of Khanduli that the village had a proper demarcation of its boundary.

Supporting the decision of Khanduli Dorbar Shnong, the Khasi Students' Union (KSU), West Jaintia Hills unit, has demanded for a settlement before any border talks proceed with Assam. HBDRF also urged the district administrations to convene a joint meeting between the Karbi people and Khanduli residents to rebuild trust and restore peace in the border areas.

The district administrations of both West Jaintia Hills and West Karbi Anglong have deployed security personnel in the area to control the situation.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for better access to common land/resources

Demand for legal recognition of land rights

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Removal of Entry Tax Gate

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Common

Type of Common Land

Non-Forest (Grazing Land)

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Legislations/Policies Involved

North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971
Section 5 [This section specifies the formation and territorial extent of Meghalaya] Section 8 [This section states that territories of Assam shall comprise of the existing areas, except to the extent of the are which now comes under the territory of Meghalaya, Mizroam and Arunachal Pradesh.]
Constitution of India, 1950
Article 244 read with Sixth Schedule [Specifies the formation, administration and power of autonomous districts, regions and councils, which includes authority to make laws for occupation and use of land.]
Assam and Meghalaya Autonomous Districts (Constitution of District Councils) Rules, 1951
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

No

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Land record discrepancies

Legal Status:

Out of Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

No

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Physical attack

Torching of houses

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

No

Reported Details of the Violation:

Date of Violation

May 10, 2023

Location of Violation

Khanduli Village

Nature of Protest

Stone pelting

Property damage/arson

Complaints/petitions/letters/memorandums to officials

Community-based participatory research

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

West Karbi Anglong District Administration, West Jaintia Hills District Administration, Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council, Jaintia Autonomous District Council

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Khanduli Village Council, Hynniewtrep Border Dispute Redressal Forum, Khasi Students' Union

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Documented By

Text Link

Reviewed By

Text Link

Updated By

Text Link

Edited By

Text LinkLand Conflict Watch

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