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Karbi Anglong Accuses Nagaland of Encroachment in Daldali Reserve Forest

Reported by

Emilo Yanthan

Legal Review by

Anmol Gupta, Mukta Joshi

Edited by

Moushumi Sharma

Updated by

Published on

March 24, 2022

March 4, 2024

Edited on

March 24, 2022

State

Assam

Sector

Land Use

People Affected by Conflict

Households Affected by Conflict

Land Area Affected (in Hectares)

ha

Starting Year

2020

Location of Conflict

Daldali Reserve Forest

Rilan Village in Nagaland

Karbi Anglong

Reason or Cause of Conflict

Border Dispute

Land Conflict Summary

In another incident of border dispute between Assam and Nagaland, the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC) alleged ‘illegal encroachment’ in Daldali Reserve Forest in the district by Nagaland.

A team of officials, including the divisional forest officer, visited Pillar No. 1 in the forest in November 2020, which they claimed was removed by encroachers. In its place, a welcome gate has been reportedly erected by Nagaland, in addition to utility poles and two security camps. The officials claimed that people from Nagaland have built houses in the area and have named it Rilan village. According to the Karbi Anglong deputy commissioner (DC), the exact land area encroached by Nagaland can be ascertained only after examining the map.

Following reports of the encroachment, several Karbi organisations issued an ultimatum to the Nagaland government to stop encroachment in Daldali Reserve Forest. As the neighbouring state reportedly failed to comply and encroachment continued, a group of 12 organisations, including Karbi Students’ Association (KSA) and Assam Jatiyatabadi Yuva Chatra Parishad, launched an economic blockade against Nagaland on November 17, 2020. The blockade on two highways banned the entry of commercial vehicles and goods trucks from Nagaland.

The organisations called off the blockade momentarily after they were called for a meeting with the Karbi Anglong DC and superintendent of police. The organisations, led by KSA, submitted a list of six demands to the Assam chief minister, including the removal of houses and electric poles set up by Nagas within the Daldali Reserve Forest and the termination of land _pattas _(titles) given by the Nagaland government inside Assam. A member of the KSA stated that the economic blockade was not withdrawn but only called off for the time being and that the result of the meetings would determine the future course of action.

Responding to the blockade, Dimapur Deputy Commissioner R. Soundararajan stated that there was no encroachment from Nagaland in Assam and added that the economic blockade would not have any immediate effect as Nagaland had ample reserves of essential goods.

Subsequently, the DCs of Dimapur and Karbi Anglong, police commissioner of Dimapur and several officers from Karbi Anglong held a meeting on November 18, 2020,** to resolve the border dispute. The **Dimapur DC maintains that Nagaland does not approve of the boundary demarcation as per the British map and that the case is sub judice in the Supreme Court. He also claimed that the activities alleged by Karbi Anglong took place inside the jointly accepted settlement area in Nagaland.

Fact Sheet

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for legal recognition of land rights

Demand to retain/protect access to common land/resources

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Region Classification

Urban

Type of Land

Common

Type of Common Land

Forest and Non-Forest

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Details of sources (names of accused, names and numbers of any lawyers, names of any police officers contacted)

Status of Project

Original Project Deadline

Whether the Project has been Delayed

Significance of Land to Land Owners/Users

Government or community-regulated urban commons

Whether the project was stalled due to land conflict

Source/Reference

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Legal Data

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Legislations/Policies Involved

Naga-Akbar Hydari Accord (Nine Point Agreement), dated June 26-28, 1947
Point no. 6 [Boundaries between the territories of the Nagas and the State of Assam to be modified as per this provision, such that the Naga Hills District should be returned to the Naga Council]
16 Point Agreement between the Government of India and the Naga People’s Convention, dated July 26, 1960
Point no. 12-13 [The Naga Delegation raised the demand of consolidation of forest areas and Contiguous Naga Areas before the Union government]
Constitution of India, 1950
Article 131 [The Supreme Court to have jurisdiction over disputes arising between two or more States].
State of Assam v. Union of India and Ors. (O.S. 2/1988, Supreme Court of India)
In September 2004, the Supreme Court appointed a Local Commission for identification of boundaries between Assam and Nagaland. Later in 2010, the court directed that mediation may also be explored between both states to resolve the dispute.
State of Nagaland Act, 1962
Section 3 [Territorial extent of the newly formed Nagaland state]
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Land record discrepancies

Lack of legal protection over land rights

Legal Status:

Out of Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

No

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

No items found.

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

No

Reported Details of the Violation:

Date of Violation

Location of Violation

Additional Information

Nature of Protest

Blockades

Media-based activism/alternative media

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Dimapur District Administration, Karbi Anglong District Admininstration

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Karbi Students’ Association, Assam Jatiyatabadi Yuva Chatra Parishad, Karbi Students and Youth Council, United Karbi Youth Association, Karbi Anglong Woman Justice Forum, Karbi Unemployed Youth Association, Assam Adivasi Students' Association, Hills Progressive Youth Association, United Karbi Anglong Women's Association, Karbi Farmers' Association, All Dimasa Students' Union, Assam Tea Tribe Students' Association

Information on the use of criminal law

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Resources

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Images

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Video

In another incident of border dispute between Assam and Nagaland, the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC) alleged ‘illegal encroachment’ in Daldali Reserve Forest in the district by Nagaland.

A team of officials, including the divisional forest officer, visited Pillar No. 1 in the forest in November 2020, which they claimed was removed by encroachers. In its place, a welcome gate has been reportedly erected by Nagaland, in addition to utility poles and two security camps. The officials claimed that people from Nagaland have built houses in the area and have named it Rilan village. According to the Karbi Anglong deputy commissioner (DC), the exact land area encroached by Nagaland can be ascertained only after examining the map.

Following reports of the encroachment, several Karbi organisations issued an ultimatum to the Nagaland government to stop encroachment in Daldali Reserve Forest. As the neighbouring state reportedly failed to comply and encroachment continued, a group of 12 organisations, including Karbi Students’ Association (KSA) and Assam Jatiyatabadi Yuva Chatra Parishad, launched an economic blockade against Nagaland on November 17, 2020. The blockade on two highways banned the entry of commercial vehicles and goods trucks from Nagaland.

The organisations called off the blockade momentarily after they were called for a meeting with the Karbi Anglong DC and superintendent of police. The organisations, led by KSA, submitted a list of six demands to the Assam chief minister, including the removal of houses and electric poles set up by Nagas within the Daldali Reserve Forest and the termination of land _pattas _(titles) given by the Nagaland government inside Assam. A member of the KSA stated that the economic blockade was not withdrawn but only called off for the time being and that the result of the meetings would determine the future course of action.

Responding to the blockade, Dimapur Deputy Commissioner R. Soundararajan stated that there was no encroachment from Nagaland in Assam and added that the economic blockade would not have any immediate effect as Nagaland had ample reserves of essential goods.

Subsequently, the DCs of Dimapur and Karbi Anglong, police commissioner of Dimapur and several officers from Karbi Anglong held a meeting on November 18, 2020,** to resolve the border dispute. The **Dimapur DC maintains that Nagaland does not approve of the boundary demarcation as per the British map and that the case is sub judice in the Supreme Court. He also claimed that the activities alleged by Karbi Anglong took place inside the jointly accepted settlement area in Nagaland.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for legal recognition of land rights

Demand to retain/protect access to common land/resources

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Region Classification

Urban

Type of Land

Common

Type of Common Land

Forest and Non-Forest

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Legislations/Policies Involved

Naga-Akbar Hydari Accord (Nine Point Agreement), dated June 26-28, 1947
Point no. 6 [Boundaries between the territories of the Nagas and the State of Assam to be modified as per this provision, such that the Naga Hills District should be returned to the Naga Council]
16 Point Agreement between the Government of India and the Naga People’s Convention, dated July 26, 1960
Point no. 12-13 [The Naga Delegation raised the demand of consolidation of forest areas and Contiguous Naga Areas before the Union government]
Constitution of India, 1950
Article 131 [The Supreme Court to have jurisdiction over disputes arising between two or more States].
State of Assam v. Union of India and Ors. (O.S. 2/1988, Supreme Court of India)
In September 2004, the Supreme Court appointed a Local Commission for identification of boundaries between Assam and Nagaland. Later in 2010, the court directed that mediation may also be explored between both states to resolve the dispute.
State of Nagaland Act, 1962
Section 3 [Territorial extent of the newly formed Nagaland state]
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Land record discrepancies

Lack of legal protection over land rights

Legal Status:

Out of Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

No

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

No items found.

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

No

Reported Details of the Violation:

Date of Violation

Location of Violation

Nature of Protest

Blockades

Media-based activism/alternative media

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Dimapur District Administration, Karbi Anglong District Admininstration

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Karbi Students’ Association, Assam Jatiyatabadi Yuva Chatra Parishad, Karbi Students and Youth Council, United Karbi Youth Association, Karbi Anglong Woman Justice Forum, Karbi Unemployed Youth Association, Assam Adivasi Students' Association, Hills Progressive Youth Association, United Karbi Anglong Women's Association, Karbi Farmers' Association, All Dimasa Students' Union, Assam Tea Tribe Students' Association

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Documented By

Text Link

Reviewed By

Text Link

Updated By

Text Link

Edited By

Text LinkLand Conflict Watch

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