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Border Dispute in Nagaland's Peren District Leads to Firing, Torching of Houses

Reported by

Sarup Sinha

Legal Review by

Edited by

Updated by

Published on

November 4, 2020

May 17, 2022

Edited on

November 4, 2020

State

Nagaland

Sector

Land Use

People Affected by Conflict

21

Households Affected by Conflict

Land Area Affected (in Hectares)

ha

Starting Year

2004

Location of Conflict

Lamhainamdi

Peren

Reason or Cause of Conflict

Border Dispute

Land Conflict Summary

The DimapurPeren border area is a disputed territory inhabited by different Naga tribes on each side of the border. The two major tribes are the Sumis in Dimapur and the Zeliangrong community (representative of the three Naga tribes of Zeme, Liangmai and Rongmei) in Peren district. In a communique issued in June 2019 by the Nagaland Home Department, Principal Secretary Abhijit Sinha noted that the disputed land has been the cause of friction between the two tribal communities – Sumi and Zeme and that the endless vigilance of local authorities has helped keep possible flareups at bay. In the communiqu, Sinha urged people in the disputed area to restrain from engaging in any unruly behaviour. Invoking the ties of Naga unity, the government also appealed to the respective tribe leaders to maintain peace in the area. But two months later, on September 6, 2019, unidentified gunmen stormed Lamhainamdi village, located on the border of the two districts, and opened indiscriminate fire. They burnt down several makeshift huts, tents and structures as well as the village church. No casualties were reported as the village residents fled to the surrounding forests. Sentiwapang Aier, deputy commissioner of Peren, told LCW that the border between Peren and Dimapur districts has been a matter of longstanding contention and that the dispute existed even before Peren was created as a separate district in 2004 following its bifurcation from Kohima. The dispute continues even now because several villages, of which many are unrecognised, still share the same unsettled boundary with Dimapur that they did before, only Peren had then existed as a subdivision of Kohima and not as a separate district. Though an exact time of the creation of Lamhainamdi village could not be ascertained, it is reportedly newly established and its current status remains unrecognised, as confirmed by the district commissioner. Following the attack, Deputy Chief Minister Y. Patton constituted a Cabinet Sub Committee to resolve the dispute amicably while also undertaking measures to demarcate the entire district boundary. He called for an immediate status quo in the disputed area, alongside a halt to all infrastructure and developmentrelated activities. The Sub Committee visited the disputed area and interacted with the communities later in September. According to Patton, the border dispute intensified with the formation of Peren district. At that time, clearcut demarcation of the boundary could not be established due to competing claims by the two communities. That led to the present quagmire, with half of the disputed area falling under Dimapur district and the other half under Peren. Several organisations representing the Zeliangrong community condemned the attack. On October 22, 2019, Zeliangrong Baudi, a civil society organisation, staged a rally demanding a just demarcation of the district boundary, which takes into account history and rights of the people. Other civil society organisations Zeme Council, Liangmai Council, Rongmei Council Peren, All Zeliangrong Students Union demanded in a joint statement that the government evict the unrecognised neighbouring villages of Lamhainamdi. These villages include Kehoi, Pushito, Vihuto and Hetoi. The organisations have blamed these villages for the attack, which they believe was an attempt to grab land. Although the police had initiated an investigation, the gunmen remained unidentified and no arrests have been made so far. When asked about the current status of the dispute, the deputy commissioner told LCW that the progress was interrupted due to the outbreak of the COVID19 pandemic and that the status of Lamhainamdi village, the exact details about the land negotiation and the outcome of the Sub Committee will be announced in due time. Yet, on March 22, 2021, at least three people were killed and two vehicles burnt down by unknown assailants in what is considered an issue relating to the border dispute. According to a news report, a search operation was conducted and the area was inspected by the police, who recovered prohibited arms and ammunition from the site. On March 23, a shutdown was announced in the district by the Nagaland Zeliang People Organisation.

Fact Sheet

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for legal recognition of land rights

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Proper demarcation of district boundaries

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Common

Type of Common Land

Non-Forest (Other than Grazing Land)

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Details of sources (names of accused, names and numbers of any lawyers, names of any police officers contacted)

Status of Project

Original Project Deadline

Whether the Project has been Delayed

Significance of Land to Land Owners/Users

Whether the project was stalled due to land conflict

Source/Reference

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Legal Data

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Constitutional Law, Other

Legislations/Policies Involved

Constitution of India, 1950
Article 371 (A): [No Act of the Parliament regarding ownership and transfer of land shall apply to Nagaland unless the state Legislative Assembly decides by a resolution to do so]
Notification No.GAB-3/5/93 (Pt-II), Government of Nagaland, Home Department dated October 24, 2003
Formation of the district of Peren in 2003
Indian Penal Code, 1860
Section 436: [The torching of the houses constitutes mischief by fire]
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Lack of legal protection over land rights

Legal Status:

Out of Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Attempted killing

Torching of houses

Displacement

Killing

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

Houses were torched and shots were fired indiscriminately. A church was also burnt down. On March 22, 2021, three individuals were killed and two vehicles were burnt down.

Date of Violation

September 6, 2019

Location of Violation

Lamhainamdi Village

Additional Information

Nature of Protest

Protests/marches

Complaints/petitions/letters/memorandums to officials

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Government of Nagaland, District Administration of Dimapur and Peren, Directorate of Land Records and Revenue

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Information on the use of criminal law

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Resources

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Images

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Video

The DimapurPeren border area is a disputed territory inhabited by different Naga tribes on each side of the border. The two major tribes are the Sumis in Dimapur and the Zeliangrong community (representative of the three Naga tribes of Zeme, Liangmai and Rongmei) in Peren district. In a communique issued in June 2019 by the Nagaland Home Department, Principal Secretary Abhijit Sinha noted that the disputed land has been the cause of friction between the two tribal communities – Sumi and Zeme and that the endless vigilance of local authorities has helped keep possible flareups at bay. In the communiqu, Sinha urged people in the disputed area to restrain from engaging in any unruly behaviour. Invoking the ties of Naga unity, the government also appealed to the respective tribe leaders to maintain peace in the area. But two months later, on September 6, 2019, unidentified gunmen stormed Lamhainamdi village, located on the border of the two districts, and opened indiscriminate fire. They burnt down several makeshift huts, tents and structures as well as the village church. No casualties were reported as the village residents fled to the surrounding forests. Sentiwapang Aier, deputy commissioner of Peren, told LCW that the border between Peren and Dimapur districts has been a matter of longstanding contention and that the dispute existed even before Peren was created as a separate district in 2004 following its bifurcation from Kohima. The dispute continues even now because several villages, of which many are unrecognised, still share the same unsettled boundary with Dimapur that they did before, only Peren had then existed as a subdivision of Kohima and not as a separate district. Though an exact time of the creation of Lamhainamdi village could not be ascertained, it is reportedly newly established and its current status remains unrecognised, as confirmed by the district commissioner. Following the attack, Deputy Chief Minister Y. Patton constituted a Cabinet Sub Committee to resolve the dispute amicably while also undertaking measures to demarcate the entire district boundary. He called for an immediate status quo in the disputed area, alongside a halt to all infrastructure and developmentrelated activities. The Sub Committee visited the disputed area and interacted with the communities later in September. According to Patton, the border dispute intensified with the formation of Peren district. At that time, clearcut demarcation of the boundary could not be established due to competing claims by the two communities. That led to the present quagmire, with half of the disputed area falling under Dimapur district and the other half under Peren. Several organisations representing the Zeliangrong community condemned the attack. On October 22, 2019, Zeliangrong Baudi, a civil society organisation, staged a rally demanding a just demarcation of the district boundary, which takes into account history and rights of the people. Other civil society organisations Zeme Council, Liangmai Council, Rongmei Council Peren, All Zeliangrong Students Union demanded in a joint statement that the government evict the unrecognised neighbouring villages of Lamhainamdi. These villages include Kehoi, Pushito, Vihuto and Hetoi. The organisations have blamed these villages for the attack, which they believe was an attempt to grab land. Although the police had initiated an investigation, the gunmen remained unidentified and no arrests have been made so far. When asked about the current status of the dispute, the deputy commissioner told LCW that the progress was interrupted due to the outbreak of the COVID19 pandemic and that the status of Lamhainamdi village, the exact details about the land negotiation and the outcome of the Sub Committee will be announced in due time. Yet, on March 22, 2021, at least three people were killed and two vehicles burnt down by unknown assailants in what is considered an issue relating to the border dispute. According to a news report, a search operation was conducted and the area was inspected by the police, who recovered prohibited arms and ammunition from the site. On March 23, a shutdown was announced in the district by the Nagaland Zeliang People Organisation.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for legal recognition of land rights

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Proper demarcation of district boundaries

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Common

Type of Common Land

Non-Forest (Other than Grazing Land)

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Constitutional Law, Other

Legislations/Policies Involved

Constitution of India, 1950
Article 371 (A): [No Act of the Parliament regarding ownership and transfer of land shall apply to Nagaland unless the state Legislative Assembly decides by a resolution to do so]
Notification No.GAB-3/5/93 (Pt-II), Government of Nagaland, Home Department dated October 24, 2003
Formation of the district of Peren in 2003
Indian Penal Code, 1860
Section 436: [The torching of the houses constitutes mischief by fire]
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Lack of legal protection over land rights

Legal Status:

Out of Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Attempted killing

Torching of houses

Displacement

Killing

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

Houses were torched and shots were fired indiscriminately. A church was also burnt down. On March 22, 2021, three individuals were killed and two vehicles were burnt down.

Date of Violation

September 6, 2019

Location of Violation

Lamhainamdi Village

Nature of Protest

Protests/marches

Complaints/petitions/letters/memorandums to officials

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Government of Nagaland, District Administration of Dimapur and Peren, Directorate of Land Records and Revenue

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Sentiwapang Aier, deputy commissioner of Peren, told LCW that the district boundary where Lamhainamdi village is situated has been a matter of longstanding contention and that the dispute existed even before the creation of Peren district in 2004 when it broke away from Kohima.

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Documented By

Text Link

Reviewed By

Text Link

Updated By

Text Link

Edited By

Text LinkLand Conflict Watch

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