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As human-elephant conflicts peak in Assam, villagers demand fair compensation for losses, effective mitigation measures

Reported by

East Street Journal Asia

Legal Review by

Anmol Gupta

Edited by

Anupa Sagar Kujur

Updated by

Published on

May 19, 2024

June 3, 2024

Edited on

May 19, 2024

State

Assam

Sector

Conservation and Forestry

People Affected by Conflict

1010

Households Affected by Conflict

210

Land Area Affected (in Hectares)

ha

Starting Year

2014

Location of Conflict

Dudhnoi

West Kamrup Forest Division - Nam Shantipur, Thuramukh, Morangi, Burha Mayong Par, Chandrapur, Hahim, Kallapara, Dimow, Panidihing, Bokakhat; and additional villages in the following districts - Kamrup, Karbi Anglong, Golaghat, Sonitpur, Nagaon, Tinsukia, Dhemaji, Nalbari, Kamrup metropolitan, Tezpur, Jorhat, Chirang.

Goalpara

Reason or Cause of Conflict

Human-Wildlife Conflict

Human Encroachment, Habitat loss, Commercial agriculture

Land Conflict Summary

On 18 January 2024, 43-year-old Anil Rabha lost his life in a fatal encounter with an elephant in Nam Santipur village in the West Kamrup Forest Division area of Assam's Kamrup district. A few days back, Kamaleswar Boro fell victim to an elephant attack in another incident in Borkhal village. Meanwhile, the West Kamrup Forest Division recorded the tragic deaths of two elephant calves along the Assam-Meghalaya border in the last three months.

Since 2010, over 1,000 persons and more than 900 elephants in Assam have [lost their lives](https://thewire.in/environment/tiger-elephant-attack-deaths-data-parliament#:~:text=Uttar Pradesh reported the second,96 and 80 deaths respectively.) in human-elephant conflicts. The Northeast state is home to over 5,700 elephants, second only to Karnataka's more than 6,000.

Human-elephant conflicts in at least 10 districts of Assam, including Kamrup, Sonitpur, Golaghat, Karbi anglong Nagaon, has increased significantly over the last few years, leading to an increase in fatalities on both sides. 

The human-elephant conflict in Assam over natural resources is very complex. Owing to an increase in human population and developmental activities such as mining, laying of railway lines, quarrying, etc, the natural habitats of elephants have shrunk drastically. According to the India State of Forest Report-2019, Assam has only 36.11 percent of forest cover out of its total geographical area of 78,438 sq km. Out of the total 28,327 sq km forest area, only 2,795 sq km comprises dense forest, while 10,279 sq km area is moderately dense forest.

Experts believe that there is not enough space for humans and elephants to coexist peacefully across the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys and the Barail Hill range in between.

Hence, elephants are forced to come out of their natural habitat to human settlements in search of food as they barely find enough to eat in their shrinking habitat. They raid crops, damage houses and, in some cases, threaten human life. 

Resolving such intense conflicts would require a multi-stakeholder approach from the government, as well as local communities, to actively participate in long-term conservation efforts. While the number of Elephant Corridors in India increased by 40% since 2010 to a total of 150 in 2023, with Assam alone hosting 12 such corridors, there has been no decline in human-elephant conflicts.

The Assam government provides compensation to the families of persons killed in human-elephant conflict. However, the villagers feel that the amount (Rs 3 lakh) is not enough for the damages and most importantly, it is definitely not a solution to the human-elephant conflicts. Hence, scores of village heads have been seeking coordination among different government departments, including forest department and district administration, to resolve the issue.

In October 2021, a meeting was held in the Sonitpur district to discuss the plan for the Nameri-Sonai Rupai-Arimora Chapori corridor. Local farmers, the administration, the Assam Forest Department, and elephant experts suggested acquiring land at critical junctures to protect important stretches from obstruction. This process could help create a mutually beneficial solution for both people and wildlife. The plan for Nameri-Sonai Rupai-Arimora Chapori corridor is yet to be finalised.

In an interview with LCW, Founder of the Assam Elephant Foundation, Kaushik Baruah, recounted that to prevent these conflicts, acquiring land at critical junctures to safeguard important stretches could benefit both people and wildlife. "Fragmented, degraded, and shrinking habitats have led to man-elephant conflicts, resulting in electrocution, poisoning, and train accidents. Achieving a balance between humans and elephants may require adjustments, political will and resources," Baruah said.

Fact Sheet

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for compensation

Opposition against environmental degradation

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Region Classification

Urban and Rural

Type of Land

Common and Private

Type of Common Land

Forest and Non-Forest

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Details of sources (names of accused, names and numbers of any lawyers, names of any police officers contacted)

Status of Project

Original Project Deadline

Whether the Project has been Delayed

Significance of Land to Land Owners/Users

Agricultural land

Whether the project was stalled due to land conflict

Source/Reference

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Legal Data

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Legislations/Policies Involved

Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972
Section 5C [Functions of the National Board of Wildlife (NBWL) include carrying out impact assessment of any development activity which can impact wildlife or its habitat] Section 29 [Permit granted by Chief Wildlife Warden is necessary for any action which may affect or destroy habitats for wildlife in a sanctuary] Section 33 [Chief Wild Life Warden may permit construction of roads which may be necessary for functioning of the sanctuary] Section 35(6) [Permit of the NBWL is necessary for any action which may affect or destroy habitats for wildlife in a national park]
Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
Section 2 [This section restricts the use of forestland for non-forest purpose]
Assam Forest Regulation, 1891
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

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    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

No

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Violation of environmental laws

Legal Status:

In Court

Status of Case In Court

Disposed

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Gauhati High Court

Case Number

PIL (Suo Moto)/1/2022

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

In March 2022, the Gauhati High Court took suo moto cognizance of the issue based on a letter written by an environmentalist. The letter contained details of elephant poaching and killing as well as widescale deforestation. On September 5, 2022, the Court disposed of the matter. The Court took note of the details given by the Divisional Forest Officer. These included the fact that 200 elephants have died at the hands of illegal encroachers as well as 311 people dying due to wild animal attacks. The Court directed the state government to constitute a task force to monitor the situation and clear the encroachments in the area.

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

No items found.

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

Date of Violation

Location of Violation

Additional Information

Nature of Protest

Community-based participatory research

Campaigns (grassroots organisations/press releases/media)

Involvement of national and international NGOs

Development of a network or collective

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Assam Forest Department

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Information on the use of criminal law

What was the action taken by the police?

How many people did the police detain or arrest?

What is the current status of the detained/accused persons?

Did the person face any violence while in police custody?

If any arrests took place, were the accused persons produced before a judge within 24 hours of the arrest?

If the accused was not produced before a magistrate within 24 hours, or not produced at all, what were the reasons?

Legislation under which the accused was charged

Was the accused person informed of their right to legal representation? Did the accused person have access to legal aid?

In cases where the accused person approached the court for bail, was bail granted?

Why was bail granted or rejected? If granted, what were the bail conditions and quantum of bail?

Were there any other notable irregularities that took place, or other significant details?

Resources

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Images

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Video

Hati Bondhu

On 18 January 2024, 43-year-old Anil Rabha lost his life in a fatal encounter with an elephant in Nam Santipur village in the West Kamrup Forest Division area of Assam's Kamrup district. A few days back, Kamaleswar Boro fell victim to an elephant attack in another incident in Borkhal village. Meanwhile, the West Kamrup Forest Division recorded the tragic deaths of two elephant calves along the Assam-Meghalaya border in the last three months.

Since 2010, over 1,000 persons and more than 900 elephants in Assam have [lost their lives](https://thewire.in/environment/tiger-elephant-attack-deaths-data-parliament#:~:text=Uttar Pradesh reported the second,96 and 80 deaths respectively.) in human-elephant conflicts. The Northeast state is home to over 5,700 elephants, second only to Karnataka's more than 6,000.

Human-elephant conflicts in at least 10 districts of Assam, including Kamrup, Sonitpur, Golaghat, Karbi anglong Nagaon, has increased significantly over the last few years, leading to an increase in fatalities on both sides. 

The human-elephant conflict in Assam over natural resources is very complex. Owing to an increase in human population and developmental activities such as mining, laying of railway lines, quarrying, etc, the natural habitats of elephants have shrunk drastically. According to the India State of Forest Report-2019, Assam has only 36.11 percent of forest cover out of its total geographical area of 78,438 sq km. Out of the total 28,327 sq km forest area, only 2,795 sq km comprises dense forest, while 10,279 sq km area is moderately dense forest.

Experts believe that there is not enough space for humans and elephants to coexist peacefully across the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys and the Barail Hill range in between.

Hence, elephants are forced to come out of their natural habitat to human settlements in search of food as they barely find enough to eat in their shrinking habitat. They raid crops, damage houses and, in some cases, threaten human life. 

Resolving such intense conflicts would require a multi-stakeholder approach from the government, as well as local communities, to actively participate in long-term conservation efforts. While the number of Elephant Corridors in India increased by 40% since 2010 to a total of 150 in 2023, with Assam alone hosting 12 such corridors, there has been no decline in human-elephant conflicts.

The Assam government provides compensation to the families of persons killed in human-elephant conflict. However, the villagers feel that the amount (Rs 3 lakh) is not enough for the damages and most importantly, it is definitely not a solution to the human-elephant conflicts. Hence, scores of village heads have been seeking coordination among different government departments, including forest department and district administration, to resolve the issue.

In October 2021, a meeting was held in the Sonitpur district to discuss the plan for the Nameri-Sonai Rupai-Arimora Chapori corridor. Local farmers, the administration, the Assam Forest Department, and elephant experts suggested acquiring land at critical junctures to protect important stretches from obstruction. This process could help create a mutually beneficial solution for both people and wildlife. The plan for Nameri-Sonai Rupai-Arimora Chapori corridor is yet to be finalised.

In an interview with LCW, Founder of the Assam Elephant Foundation, Kaushik Baruah, recounted that to prevent these conflicts, acquiring land at critical junctures to safeguard important stretches could benefit both people and wildlife. "Fragmented, degraded, and shrinking habitats have led to man-elephant conflicts, resulting in electrocution, poisoning, and train accidents. Achieving a balance between humans and elephants may require adjustments, political will and resources," Baruah said.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for compensation

Opposition against environmental degradation

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Region Classification

Urban and Rural

Type of Land

Common and Private

Type of Common Land

Forest and Non-Forest

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

No

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Legislations/Policies Involved

Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972
Section 5C [Functions of the National Board of Wildlife (NBWL) include carrying out impact assessment of any development activity which can impact wildlife or its habitat] Section 29 [Permit granted by Chief Wildlife Warden is necessary for any action which may affect or destroy habitats for wildlife in a sanctuary] Section 33 [Chief Wild Life Warden may permit construction of roads which may be necessary for functioning of the sanctuary] Section 35(6) [Permit of the NBWL is necessary for any action which may affect or destroy habitats for wildlife in a national park]
Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
Section 2 [This section restricts the use of forestland for non-forest purpose]
Assam Forest Regulation, 1891
  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  2. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  3. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  4. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  5. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  6. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

  7. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

No

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Violation of environmental laws

Legal Status:

In Court

Status of Case In Court

Disposed

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Gauhati High Court

Case Number

PIL (Suo Moto)/1/2022

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

In March 2022, the Gauhati High Court took suo moto cognizance of the issue based on a letter written by an environmentalist. The letter contained details of elephant poaching and killing as well as widescale deforestation. On September 5, 2022, the Court disposed of the matter. The Court took note of the details given by the Divisional Forest Officer. These included the fact that 200 elephants have died at the hands of illegal encroachers as well as 311 people dying due to wild animal attacks. The Court directed the state government to constitute a task force to monitor the situation and clear the encroachments in the area.

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

No items found.

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

Date of Violation

Location of Violation

Nature of Protest

Community-based participatory research

Campaigns (grassroots organisations/press releases/media)

Involvement of national and international NGOs

Development of a network or collective

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Assam Forest Department

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Hati Bondhu

Documented By

Text Link

Reviewed By

Text Link

Updated By

Text Link

Edited By

Text LinkLand Conflict Watch
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