Legal Data by
March 14, 2017
March 14, 2017
March 14, 2017
Mopa Greenfield Airport is a proposed international airport in North Goa. It will be spread over 2,200 acres of land, making it the largest land acquisition in independent Goa. The land is situated on a laterite plateau, consisting of forests, grazing lands, orchards and farms under seasonal cultivation, falling under the territory of six villages situated on the slopes of the plateau. Farmers and traditional cattle grazers, known as dhangars, will be among those affected. The process of land acquisition began in 2008, but the airport project caught public attention in 2009, when civil society organisations, citizens and even sections of the Roman Catholic church protested with banners stating "Goans for Dabolim Only" and "Maka Naka Mopa" (I Don't Want Mopa). The government claims that a new airport is necessary as the Dabolim airport, which is a defence airport, cannot be expanded. The affected farmers have alleged that the government has not outlined a rehabilitation plan for the oustees, offered poor compensation rates and forcibly acquired their land. In 2013, they decided to approach the Supreme Court to challenge the land acquisition by the government. The farmers, along with the nonprofit Federation of Rainbow Warriors, challenged the environmental clearance (EC) granted to the airport before the Pune bench of the National Green Tribunal (NGT). In November 2016, the NGT ordered a status quo on the relocation of the affected farmers until the case was decided upon. To appease the farmers, the state government increased their compensation. But the farmers refused, saying that they wanted to continue with their traditional occupation and not part with the land at all. According to a reply in Rajya Sabha in December 2016, only 618 farmers were paid compensation out of the 7,869 persons eligible. The others refused to accept it. Meanwhile, the Goa government awarded a 40year construction and operations contract to the GMR Group for the project, which is estimated to cost around INR 3,000 crore. In 2017, as GMR commenced construction work, people living in two neighbouring villages alleged that their homes were wrongly demolished. The residents claimed they had received no prior intimation or compensation for land acquisition and were given just two minutes to clear their belongings. In March 2018, the state approved an additional compensation of three times the original rate to those displaced by the project. In August that year, the NGT upheld the EC granted to the project citing public interest but imposed additional conditions. Environmental groups, however, continued to protest against the project and the displacement of dhangars. They pointed out that while the EC mentioned that the project site was barren, a government survey revealed that more than 55,000 trees at the site were going to be felled. They filed an appeal against the treecutting at the NGT. When the NGT upheld the EC, the people appealed the case before the Supreme Court. In March 2019, the apex court struck down the NGT's order and suspended the EC. It ordered the government to reassess the project. After the government completed the process, the apex court revived the EC in January 2020 and allowed the project to be completed. According to the government, the airport would become operational by 2022. After the Supreme Court's decision, there has been no reports of further opposition to the project.
Refusal to give up land for the project
Complaint against procedural violations
Demand for rehabilitation
Demand for more compensation than promised
Forest and Non-Forest
Total investment involved (in Crores):
Type of investment:
Cost of Project
Year of Estimation
Page Number In Investment Document:
Has the Conflict Ended?
When did it end?
Why did the conflict end?
Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict
Forest and Scheduled Area Governance Laws, Land Acquisition Laws, Environmental Laws
Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute
What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?
What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?
Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:
Controversial land acquisition by the government
Non-rehabilitation of displaced people
Incorrect estimation of compensation
Forced evictions/dispossession of land
Status of Case In Court
Whether any adjudicatory body was approached
Name of the adjudicatory body
Name(s) of the Court(s)
Supreme Court of India
Civil Appeal No. 12251 of 2018
Main Reasoning/Decision of court
Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:
Whether criminal law was used against protestors:
Reported Details of the Violation:
Date of Violation
Location of Violation
Nature of Protest
Complaints/petitions/letters/memorandums to officials
Refusal of compensation
Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:
Government of Goa, Ministry of Civil Aviation
PSUs Involved in the Conflict:
Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?
Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached
Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:
GMR Goa International Airport Limited
Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?
Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:
Federation of Rainbow Warriors, an environmental activist group based in Margao