Twenty-one villages in Koraput district in Odisha, more commonly known as the Kotia group of villages, have been caught in an identity crisis since the 1950s. Both Odisha and Andhra Pradesh claim jurisdiction over them, as they are situated along the inter-state border, although the villages are part of the Kotia panchayat in Koraputs Pottangi constituency. After Odisha was formed in 1936, the state government wrote to the then government of Madras Presidency to take steps for delineation of the interstate boundary with Andhra Pradesh. H.S. Gilby, the then assistant director of Survey and Land Records, was appointed to demarcate the boundary in 1942. According to his report, the 21 villages fell within the boundary of Andhra Pradesh. The dispute started in March 1955 when some subordinate government officers from Andhra Pradesh tried to collect rent from the village residents, following the formation of the state in 1953. Y.V. Chavan, the then home minister of India, tried to bring the chief ministers of both the states together to resolve the dispute in a meeting in September 1968. Chavan noted that based on Gilbys report of 1942, which Odisha had accepted, it was difficult to support the states claim over the disputed villages. The Odisha government filed a case in the Supreme Court in 1968. In the original suit, 73 villages were specified to be disputed, but, subsequently, the number was reduced to 21 in 1980. The disputed villages are Doliamba, Madakaru, Kotiya, Digurasembi, Equrasembi, Gangaibhadra, Dhulipadar, Sidivalasa, Arjuvalasa, Panika, Narlavalsa, Tadivalsa, Ranasingi, Simageda, Mahipani, Pattuchenaru, Pagulchenaru, Solapguda, Harmadangi, Kanadora and Barnaguda. The suit claimed that the villages falling within the territory of Odisha were being trespassed upon by Andhra Pradesh. It questioned whether the disputed villages were part of Salur or Pottangi tehsils. The court noted that Pottangi appears to be within the territory of Odisha while Salur comes within the territory of Andhra Pradesh. On March 30, 2006, the suit was disposed of by the Supreme Court, which held that the Parliament alone is authorised to determine the territorial limits of states. At least 5,500 people are caught up in this border war, which has lasted for over 60 years. The villages have two sarpanches (village panchayat heads): Biswanath Khila who represents Odisha and Bisu Gemel who represents Andhra Pradesh. In a bid to woo residents towards them, the two states have provided various benefits to the people in these villages, such as ration, houses, roads and healthcare facilities. In February 2020, the Andhra Pradesh government distributed forest land rights to 19 families of Arjuvalasa village. On February 13, the state also held panchayat polls in three of the disputed villages. On February 25, the Odisha Assembly witnessed ruckus over the issue and the session had to be adjourned. Meanwhile, the Supreme Court has issued a notice to the Andhra Pradesh government over a contempt of court plea filed by Odisha. The plea states that the disputed villages have been under the control of the local administration of Odisha and that the state has undertaken several infrastructure initiatives in these villages.
Demand/Contention of the Affected Community
Government Bodies Involved in the Conflict:
Odisha Land Revenue and Disaster Management Department, Chief Commissioner of Land Administration, Government of Andhra Pradesh
Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:
Other Parties Involved in the Conflict:
Legislations Involved in the Conflict:
Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:
Name(s) of Court(s)
Supreme Court of India
Original suit number 10 of 1968, decided on March 30, 2006
Nature of Protest
Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:
Reported Details of the Violation:
Date of Violation
Location of Violation
Has the Conflict Ended?
When did it end?
Why did the conflict end?