Farmers in Madhya Pradesh Allege Violation of FRA as Police Damage Crops

Reported by

Aditi PatilLand Conflict Watch

Last updated on

April 29, 2021

Location of Conflict



Reason or Cause of Conflict




People Affected by Conflict


Land Area Affected (in Hectares)



Starting Year



Madhya Pradesh


Conservation and Forestry

On May 1, 2019, the Madhya Pradesh government began the process of reexamining the cases of several forest dwellers whose claims over forestland had been rejected. The state notified all district collectors not to carry out any evictions till the cases had been reviewed. Despite this, on July 9, around 50 forest department officials and police arrived in Siwal village in Nepanagar block of Burhanpur district with excavators and began razing down farms in the name of carrying out a plantation drive. The forest officials tried to run JCBs (excavators) over farms in which farmers had just sown seeds. When the farmers protested, the police fired pellets at them. Four farmers were injured and one had to be taken to a hospital in Indore. The police claim that three forest officials were also injured when the villagers pelted stones at them. According to a junior police official at Nepanagar police station, the villagers attacked first. On July 14, tribals of Burhanpur gathered at the Burhanpur District Collector's office to protest against the forest department's illegal firing and its constant violations of the Forest Rights Act (FRA) and government orders. The Nepanagar Police registered two First Information Reports (FIRs) in the case. In the first FIR, three unidentified forest officials were booked for rash and negligent actions that cause hurt and endanger human life. In the second FIR, 150 unidentified tribespeople were charged under various sections of the Indian Penal Code dealing with unlawful assembly, rioting and obstruction of duty by public servants. Following the FIR, villagers from Nepanagar staged a sitin outside the local police station. They alleged that the FIRs were wrongly filed and called for all false cases against the tribal farmers of Siwal to be dropped. They also demanded that the rights accorded to the Village Assembly (gram sabha) under the Panchayat (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996, and the FRA should be protected from violations by government officials. Additionally, in accordance with the state government's order of May 1, 2019, and Section 4(5) of the FRA, no claimant of forest rights should be evicted or acted against until the legal processing and verification of their claims are completed. Then Chief Minister Kamal Nath ordered an investigation into the incident after several political leaders demanded action against those responsible. The matter has been reported to the local Nepanagar police station. Many villagers filed for FRA claims again in January 2020.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for legal recognition of land rights, Complaint against procedural violations

Region Classification


Type of Land


Type of Common Land


Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Has the Conflict Ended?

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Forest and Scheduled Area Governance Laws, Other

Legislations/Policies Involved

  1. The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006

    Section 4 (5) [This section states that no Adivasi claimant should be evicted or acted against until the legal processing and verification of claims are completed]

  2. Panchayat (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996

    Section 4(h)(i) [This section requires consultation with the gram sabha before evicting and re-settling]

  3. Indian Penal Code, 1860

    Sections 152 [Section 152 was applied against Adivasis for unlawful assembly, rioting and obstruction of public servants]; Section 336 [This section punishes rash or negligent acts that endanger human life or personal safety of others]; Section 337 [This section punishes causing hurt by rash and negligent actions that cause hurt and endanger human life]

  4. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

    Section 3(1)(f) [This section makes it punishable to wrongfully occupy land owned or possessed by a member of SC or ST]; Section 3(1)(g) [This section makes wrongful dispossession of land of a member of SC or ST punishable]

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community? What was the decision of the concerned government department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Non-implementation/violation of the FRA, Lack of legal protection over land rights, Forced evictions/ Dispossession of Land, Non-implementation/violation of the PESA, Violation of free prior informed consent

Legal Status:

In Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Physical attack, Arrest/detention/imprisonment, Lathi charge/tear gas/pellets, Judicial harassment

Whether criminal law was used against protestors

Official name of the criminal law. Did the case reach trial?

Reported Details of the Violation:

Tribal farmers in Burhanpur clashed with police forces when the latter marched into their fields and tried to damage their farms with excavators. Four farmers were injured when the police fired pellets. The farmers claim that the police filed wrongful FIRs against 150 tribespeople following the incident.

Date of Violation

July 9, 2019

Location of Violation

Nature of Protest


Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Forest Department

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?


Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?


Name, Designation and Comment of Corporate Authorities Approached

Other Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Jagrit Adivasi Dalit Sangathan

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:
No Images Available

Documented By

Aditi Patil

Reviewed By

Aditi Patil

Updated By

Aditi Patil

Edited By

Aditi PatilLand Conflict Watch

Support our work

Your contribution ensures continuity of this crucial project.

As a member, you will get exclusive access to special reports, policy papers and research projects undertaken by Land Conflict Watch and behind-the-scenes interactions with the writers and researchers about their work.
Contribute Now