300 Families in MP Displaced by Kharak Dam, Awaiting Rehabilitation Since 2011

Reported by

Aditi Patil

Legal Data by

Edited by

Updated by

Published on

April 8, 2019

April 8, 2019

Updated on

April 8, 2019

Location of Conflict

Chaukhand

Barwani district

Khargone

Reason or Cause of Conflict

Multipurpose Dam

(

)

People Affected by Conflict

300

Households Affected by Conflict

Land Area Affected (in Hectares)

218

ha

Starting Year

2012

State

Madhya Pradesh

Sector

Infrastructure

Residents of Chaukhand village have been opposing the construction of a dam on Kharak river passing through Barwani and Khargone districts. The state government began land acquisition for the dam in 2011 even before the project got forest and environment clearances. Construction work began in early 2012 but was stalled due to protests by the residents, who demanded a comprehensive rehabilitation policy before the dam came up. In July 2012, some people from the villages of Juna Bilwa, Kaniapani and Choukhand were forced to accept a paltry compensation of INR 40,000 per acre as opposed to the district collector's guidelines, which fixed the compensation amount at INR 1.6 lakh for noncultivable land and INR 3.20 lakh for irrigated land. The farmers were informed that they would be paid compensation in three instalments, and they were threatened with imprisonment until the project's completion if they protested. Meanwhile, residents of four other affected villages in Barwani district Kamat, Kaniapani, Julwania and Muvasia were denied compensation. These villages are located in a reserve forest area. While some of the tribal residents have been given land rights under the Forest Rights Act, the claims of other farmers are pending. Residents of all the affected villages in both the districts have been demanding rehabilitation since 2012 under the Jagrit Adivasi Dalit Sangathan. The construction of the dam displaced more than 300 families in the two districts, with some agricultural fields submerging under the water released from the dam. In 2015, officials cracked down on their protests, resorting to brutal lathicharge of the tribals, including women and children, and arrest of 27 people. The matter was pushed to the Madhya Pradesh high court, which ordered rehabilitation in July 2016. In January 2017, the Supreme Court also categorically ordered that the displaced people be rehabilitated under the provisions of the Madhya Pradesh Rehabilitation Policy of 2002 and the resettlement and rehabilitation policy of 2008 under the Narmada Valley Development Authority. However, no compensation has been paid yet. In December 2019, the tribal community members protested in front of the district collectors office in Khargone. According to the report, they have resorted to Jail Bharo Andolan while raising slogan like Haq Nahi toh Jail Sahi (Jail is better than living without rights)'.  An activist associated with Jagrit Adivasi Dalit Sangathan told the media, The families have presented their rehabilitation claims time and again, but it did not yield any benefits. The entire compensation process is stalled and people are now in jail. The protesters have been singing songs of resistance and are on hunger strike. Moreover, 21 protesters were arrested on December 18 and released in two days, but they were reportedly beaten up in custody.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Demand for rehabilitation

Demand for promised compensation

Demand for legal recognition of land rights

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Region Classification

Rural

Type of Land

Both

Type of Common Land

Forest, Non-Forest (Other than Grazing Land)

Total investment involved (in Crores):

Type of investment:

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Land Acquisition Laws, Forest and Scheduled Area Governance Laws, Central/State Government Policy

Legislations/Policies Involved

Madhya Pradesh Adarsh Punarvas Niti, 2002
Clause 2 and Clause 3 [in the 2002 policy, Clause 2 defines displaced persons, and Clause 3 says that special attention would be provided to the members of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes of displaced families in case of rehabilitation]; Clause 6.8 of the policy, 2008 [This clause deals with the rehabilitation and resettlement of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe families]
Land Acquisition Act, 1894
Section 5A [Objections to land acquisition notices are to be made under this section]; Section 11 [This section provides for the district collector to make a compensation award]; Section 23 [This section lays down the factors to be considered while determining the amount of compensation]
Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
Section 24 [This section talks about retrospective applicability, here the petitioner demands that unpaid compensation should be calculated under the new 2013 law]; Section 27 [Amount of compensation is determined under this section]; Section 77 [Compensation is to be paid under this section]; Section 80 [Under this section, when compensation is not paid or if there is delay, interest becomes payable]; Second Schedule, Paragraphs 1, 5, 6, 10 and 11 [Displaced families entitled to either housing units or compensation, displaced families entitled to a subsistence grant, transportation costs, a one-time resettlement allowance, and any stamp duty or registration charges for the new housing units are to be borne by the entity responsible for the displacement.]
Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006
Section 3(1)(a) [This section recognises the right of forest dwellers to hold and live on forestland under either individual or common occupation, to either live on or cultivate]; Section 3(1)(f) [This section grants to forest dwellers rights over disputed land regardless of the nature of dispute]; Section 4(1) [This section vests all forest rights in Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers]
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Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Non-rehabilitation of displaced people

Lack of legal protection over land rights

Non-implementation/violation of FRA

Constitutional inconsistencies between state and Union land laws

Violation of free prior informed consent

Controversial land acquisition by the government

Incorrect estimation of compensation

Forced evictions/dispossession of land

Legal Status:

In Court

Status of Case In Court

Disposed

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

High Court of Madhya Pradesh

Case Number

W.P. No. 3435/2015

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

Arrest/detention/imprisonment

Physical attack

Torture

Lathicharge/teargas/pellets

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

Reported Details of the Violation:

In July 2015, 20 men and seven women (belonging to Bhil and Bhilala tribes) from the tribal village of Chaukhand in Khargone district were arrested while many others with them were brutally beaten up by police for protesting against the construction of the dam. Farmers were also threatened with imprisonment until the project's completion if they protested. Protesters were reportedly beaten up in custody.

Date of Violation

Location of Violation

Nature of Protest

Protests/marches

Artistic and creative actions (theatre, murals, art, music etc)

Hunger strike

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change; Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Madhya Pradesh Police

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Narmada Valley Development Authority

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Narmada Bachao Andolan, Jagrit Adivasi Dalit Sangathan

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Image Credit:  

Image Credit:  

Documented By

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Reviewed By

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Updated By

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Edited By

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