Tribes in Odisha's Kodingamali Hills Unite, Demand Bauxite Mining to be Stopped

Reported by

Krithika ALand Conflict Watch

Last updated on

February 8, 2021

Location of Conflict



This is a Left Wing Extremism Affected District

This is A Schedule Five District

Reason or Cause of Conflict

Bauxite Mining



People Affected by Conflict

Land Area Affected (in Hectares)



Starting Year






The Kodingamali Bauxite Mining Project was started in February 2018 by the Odisha Mining Corporation (OMC) in Koraput district. The Kodingamali mines are part of the Kodingamali Reserve Forests, comprising 12 protected forests and six reserved forest areas in the buffer zone of the mining operations. The project received the environmental clearance on May 28, 2008, for an area of 447.27 hectares. The Stage II forest clearance was obtained on September 25, 2017, for 434.935 hectares. OMC signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 2004 with Vedanta to supply 70 per cent of the bauxite from the mines to the latter for its controversial aluminium refinery in Kalahandi district. A mining contractor, Mythri Infra, was hired by the OMC for excavation and mining. OMC had initially planned to supply bauxite to Vedanta from the Niyamgiri mines, but when that project was rejected, OMC considered bauxite supply from Kodingamali. Tribal communities in Kodingamali village have protested against the mining operations, highlighting issues of irregularities in the forest clearance, inadequate livelihood opportunities and water and air pollution in the area from mining operations. The area falls under Schedule V of the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, or PESA. The tribespeople allege that the provisions of PESA were not followed nor was their consent taken while granting forest clearance to the project. The mining is not happening as per laws. The authorities are running the mine in an illegal manner. They should have conducted public hearings before opening the mine, but these processes were not conducted. They have established their monopoly here. We have waited for two years now, but no development has happened that was promised to us. We just want this mine to be shut and trees to be planted in its place, Akhil Chandra Jhatia, a protestor, told a local news channel. In April 2018, five forest dwellers were arrested for allegedly torching a tipper of the OMC, following which mining was halted for some time. In August, Pradeep Kumar Bagh, president of the Kodingamali Suraksha Manch, filed a public interest litigation (PIL) at the Orissa High Court to stop the excavation and transportation of minerals. However, this was withdrawn by the petitioner with a request to file again as the court said that OMC and Vedanta should have been made parties in the PIL. In November, some villagers filed a complaint with the Odisha State Pollution Control Board on effluents being discharged into the agricultural fields from the mines. This was followed by a complaint to the District Collector. In September 2019, residents of 24 villages, including Kodingamali, protested against Vedanta in Koraput, demanding fresh hearings with the village assembly for the mining project. The agitation ended after the district administration assured the protesters that the procedure will be started afresh. In December, the Orissa High Court ordered the secretary of the State Mines Department to look into the matter and to stop illegal mining at the Kodingamali mines in Laxmipur area of Koraput.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Complaint against procedural violations

Region Classification


Type of Land


Type of Common Land


Total investment involved (in Crores):


Type of investment:

Cost of Project

Year of Estimation

Has the Conflict Ended?


When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Legislations/Policies Involved

Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community? What was the decision of the concerned government department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Legal Status:

In Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Orissa High Court

Case Number

WP(C) No. 8665 of 2018, WP(C) 14541 OF 2018

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:


Whether criminal law was used against protestors

Official name of the criminal law. Did the case reach trial?

Reported Details of the Violation:

Laxmipur Police arrested 42 members of the Kodingamali Suraksha Manch when they participated in a protest demanding compensation to the Kodingamali mine evacuees and jobs to unemployed local youths.

Date of Violation

March 13, 2020

Location of Violation

Kansariguda square, Koraput

Nature of Protest

Protests/marches, Property damage/arson

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of Corporate Authorities Approached

Other Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
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Documented By

Krithika A

Reviewed By

Krithika A

Updated By

Krithika A

Edited By

Krithika ALand Conflict Watch

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