On January 30, 2019, a bench of the Rajasthan High Court took suo moto action against administrative laxity in dealing with the encroachment of pasture land in Panchwa village in Rajasthan's Nagaur district. The court directed the district collector to "adopt the village to ensure that encroachment is removed". According to Narayan Ram, sarpanch (panchayat head) of Panchwa, the land in question is pasture land as per revenue records. He told Land Conflict Watch that people started settling on the land in 19851990. The number of people gradually grew as the government failed to take timely action. The families that settled built houses while the village panchayat issued noobjection certificates (NOCs) for water and electricity connections. Today, nearly 200 families have encroached upon 1.92 hectares. Following the court order, administrative officials swung into action and directed the tehsildar and patwari (revenue officer) to carry out land measurement, which created a fear of eviction among the residents. They claim that the village panchayat first issued them NOCs and when they had settled on the land, the government wanted to evict them. Kuchaman City tehsildar Jagdish Sharma told Land Conflict Watch that measurement of the land has been taken on the order of the district collector. He added that a report is being prepared and that notices have already been served to the encroachers to vacate the land. When Land Conflict Watch asked Sharma whether the residents will be compensated if the encroachments are demolished, Sharma said that the government does not pay compensation in the case of nonright holders encroaching upon government land. The residents have launched several protests against the demolition of their houses and their removal from the land.
Demand for rehabilitation, Demand for legal recognition of land rights, Demand to retain/protect access to common land/resources
Refusal to give up possession of the land
Non-Forest (Grazing Land)
Has the Conflict Ended?
When did it end?
Why did the conflict end?
Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict
Case Laws, Land Reform Laws, Central/State Government Policy
Suo Motu v. State of Raj DB CW No. 11153 of 2011
Order dated 30.01.2019: District Collector was directed to take steps to ensure removal of encroachment from Panchwa village, Nagaur district.
The Rajasthan Land Revenue Act, 1956
Section 90A(8): Regularization of certain land; Section 91(1): A person who occupies pasture land without lawful authority is a trespasser who may be summarily evicted by the Tehsildar at any point of time; Section 91(2): Trespassers may be penalised by an amount up to 50 times the annual rent for the first act of trespass and they may be liable to be committed to civil prison for up to 3 months for every subsequent act of trespass; Section 91(3-A): Before taking recourse to eviction proceedings under Section 91(2), the Tahsildar will serve on the trespasser a notice specifying the land in question and giving them an option to either vacate or show-cause as to why they should not be evicted.
Rajasthan Land Revenue (Eviction of Trespassers) Rules, 1975
Section 3: Notice for eviction of trespassers to be given as per Form ‘A’ of the 1975 Rules.
Rajasthan Slum Development Policy (Under Public-Private Partnership) 2012
The policy aims to bring all existing slums in 'Class-1 towns' within the formal system. It envisages a plan to shift untenable slums to the nearest available vacant land and map ownership categories of encroached land in order to work out solutions for regularisation and reconstruction suitable to each ownership category; Annexure – 1: Nagaur is listed as a Class-I town to which the policy is applicable.
Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute
What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community? What was the decision of the concerned government department?
Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:
Forced evictions/ Dispossession of Land, Non-rehabilitation of displaced people, Lack of legal protection over land rights, Land-record discrepancies
Status of Case In Court
Whether any adjudicatory body was approached
Name of the adjudicatory body
Name(s) of the Court(s)
Rajasthan High Court
Civil Writ Petition No. 11153 of 2011
Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:
Whether criminal law was used against protestors
Official name of the criminal law. Did the case reach trial?
Reported Details of the Violation:
Date of Violation
Location of Violation
Nature of Protest
Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:
Village panchayat, District administration, Rajasthan High Court
PSUs Involved in the Conflict:
Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?
Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached
Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:
Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?
Name, Designation and Comment of Corporate Authorities Approached
Other Parties Involved in the Conflict: