Delhi-Mumbai Freight Corridor Hits Roadblock as Tribal Communities in Dahanu Oppose Project

Reported by

Prerna Chaurashe

Legal Data by

Edited by

Updated by

Published on

September 20, 2016

September 20, 2016

Updated on

September 20, 2016

Location of Conflict

Dahanu

Thane

Palghar

Reason or Cause of Conflict

Railways

(

)

People Affected by Conflict

Households Affected by Conflict

Land Area Affected (in Hectares)

58

ha

Starting Year

2016

State

Maharashtra

Sector

Infrastructure

In 2006, the Government of India had proposed the development of a Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC) between Delhi and Mumbai, covering a total length of 1,483 kilometres, passing through six states in the north and west of the country. The corridor is a part of the Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC), which is a USD $90 billion megainfrastructure project, with Japan being the major investor. The proposed DFC will cross more than 58 hectares of forestland, cutting through the Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Borivali, Thane forest division and Dahanu forest division. Conservationists and tribal communities living in Thane, Dahanu and Palghar have opposed the project fearing risk to their livelihood. Vinod Dumada from the Adivasi Ekta Parishad says that the project is being undertaken at the cost of tribal life and that local tribal families will lose their land and livelihood due to development. In 2017, 24 organisations from Gujarat and Maharashtra wrote to the Prime Minister's Office about the impact on the "physical, social and cultural upheaval of communities that live in relative symbiosis with nature". They also questioned the violation of the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act by ignoring Gram Sabha (Village Assembly) resolutions. In the past, when authorities arrived for land surveys, the communities blocked them from entering the land. Meanwhile, the DMIC, which will run parallel to the DFC, has also faced consistent opposition. In Raigad district in 2015, the Farmers Anticorridor Struggle Action Committee, an outfit of peasants from 78 villages in Raigad, submitted a memorandum to then Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan and demanded a halt to the land acquisition until the LARR Act, 2013, came into force. According to a Japan International Cooperation Agency report, the land acquisition for the project is to be done under the Railways (Amendment) Act, 2008. The report notes that the Railways Act is limited compared to the LARR Act, 2013, while dealing with land and rehabilitation and resettlement issues. This has led to opposition from farmers who had different expectations of compensation from the project. During the COVID19 lockdown in 2020, the Railways expedited the process of of constructing and acquiring land. The project has been delayed with the deadline being shifted from December 2021 to June 2022.

Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Refusal to give up land for the project

Demand for more compensation than promised

Other Demand/Contention of the Affected Community

Region Classification

Urban

Type of Land

Both

Type of Common Land

Forest

Total investment involved (in Crores):

81000

Type of investment:

Cost of Project

Year of Estimation

Page Number In Investment Document:

Has the Conflict Ended?

When did it end?

Why did the conflict end?

Categories of Legislations Involved in the Conflict

Forest and Scheduled Area Governance Laws, Land Acquisition Laws, Other

Legislations/Policies Involved

Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996
Section 4(e) [The Gram Sabha shall approve all plans for social and economic development before they are taken up for implementation]; Section 4(i) [The Gram Sabha shall be consulted before any land is acquired in Scheduled Areas for development purposes]
Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006
Section 3(1)(a) [The right to hold and live on forestland for livelihood by members of forest-dwelling Scheduled Tribes shall be a forest right]; Section 4(1) [The Union government shall recognise and vest all forest rights in forest-dwelling Scheduled Tribes]
Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
Section 2(ii) [No forestland shall be used for any non-forest purpose, except with prior approval of the Union government]
Railways (Amendment) Act, 2008
Section 20A [The Union government shall have the power to acquire land for the execution of a special railway project]
Notification No. 2015/W-2/SCR/NL/22, Land Acquisition, Ministry of Railways dated October 20, 2016
Clause 2 [For new railway lines, land acquisition should be carried out through the Railways (Amendment) Act, 2016 or LARR Act, 2013. For projects declared as Special Railway Projects, land should be acquired through the Railways (Amendment) Act, 2008]
Railways Act, 1989
Section 20F(8)(a) [Compensation to be determined by the competent authority based on market value of acquired land]; Section 20G(1) [The market value of land to be determined according to the Indian Stamp Act and the average sale price for similar type of land in the vicinity]; Section 20G(5) and (6) [While determining compensation, the competent authority must take into account the value of the trees, plants and standing crops damaged during the process of land acquisition]; Section 20J [Union government to have the power to enter acquired land only after compensation has been paid according to the provisions of this Act]
Section 105 [Provisions of this Act not to apply to land acquisitions made under the Railways Act]; The Fourth Schedule [This schedule exempts the Railways Act, 1989, from the application of the Act]
Section 2 [The provisions of the LARR Act relating to compensation, rehabilitation, resettlement and infrastructural amenities shall apply to all cases of land acquisition under the enactments specified in the Fourth Schedule]
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Whether claims/objections were made as per procedure in the relevant statute

What was the claim(s)/objection(s) raised by the community?

What was the Decision of the Concerned Government Department?

Legal Processes and Loopholes Enabling the Conflict:

Controversial land acquisition by the government

Non-implementation/violation of FRA

Non-implmentation/violation of PESA

Violation of free prior informed consent

Legal Status:

Out of Court

Status of Case In Court

Whether any adjudicatory body was approached

No

Name of the adjudicatory body

Name(s) of the Court(s)

Case Number

Main Reasoning/Decision of court

Major Human Rights Violations Related to the Conflict:

No items found.

Whether criminal law was used against protestors:

No

Reported Details of the Violation:

Date of Violation

Location of Violation

Nature of Protest

Complaints/petitions/letters/memorandums to officials

Protests/marches

Blockades

Government Departments Involved in the Conflict:

Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry of Railways

PSUs Involved in the Conflict:

Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India Limited

Did LCW Approach Government Authorities for Comments?

Name, Designation and Comment of the Government Authorities Approached

Corporate Parties Involved in the Conflict:

Japan International Cooporation Agency

Did LCW Approach Corporate Parties for Comments?

Communities/Local Organisations in the Conflict:

Bombay National History Society, Farmers’ Anti-corridor Struggle Action Committee, Adivasi Ekta Parishad

Resources Related to Conflict

  • News Articles Related to the Conflict:
  • Documents Related to the Conflict:
  • Links Related to the Conflict:

Image Credit:  

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Reviewed By

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Updated By

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